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See also:
U+514D, 免
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-514D

[U+514C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514E]
Ufa32.svg
U+FA32, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA32

[U+FA31]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA33]
Ufa32.svg
免 U+2F80E, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F80E
𠘺
[U+2F80D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 兔
[U+2F80F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

A variant form with rather than on top exists.

There is another variant, in which the left-handed stroke is written as two separate components. This variant is adopted by Japanese shinjitai.

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 10, +5 in Chinese, 儿+6 in Japanese, 7 strokes in Chinese, 8 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓日竹山 (NAHU), four-corner 27416, composition⿸⿻丿(GHTK) or ⿳𫩏(JV) or ⿱⿸⿻丿(U+FA32))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 264, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 270, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+514D

Derived characters[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script
免-bronze-shang.svg 免-oracle.svg 免-bronze.svg 免-silk.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a man in a hat. Borrowed for abstract meanings. The derivative (OC *mronʔ) refers to the original word.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • miang2/miêng2 - literary (including “there is no need”, miêng2 - Chaozhou);
  • ming2/mêng2 - vernacular (mêng2 - Jieyang).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiᴇnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiɛnX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miænX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mianX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mjɛnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɛnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɛnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    miǎn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    min5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    miǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjenX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mr[o][r]ʔ/
    English avoid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9065
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mronʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to take off; to remove from the body
    2. to avoid; to escape; to evade
    3. to release; to set free
    4. to excuse from; to exempt
    5. to discharge; to waive; to forgive
    6. to remove; to dismiss (from office)
    7. to be not allowed; to be forbidden to
    8. (Min Nan) it is not necessary; there is no need
    9. (obsolete) Alternative form of (miǎn).
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) Alternative form of 𰬜 (wèn, “a kind of mourning apparel”).
    2. bud

    Compounds[edit]

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1]


    &#xFA32;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
    Ufa32.svg
    免󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    免󠄄
    +&#xE0104;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. to avoid, to escape
    2. to release, to set free, to discharge
    3. to exempt
    4. to forgive
    5. to dismiss, to discharge
      Antonyms :

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (めん) (men

    1. dismissal, being made to quit

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2022
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (myeon, mun) (hangeul , , revised myeon, mun, McCune–Reischauer myŏn, mun, Yale myen, mwun)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: miễn, mấy, mến, mém, mễm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.