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See also:
U+514D, 免
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-514D

[U+514C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514E]
U+FA32, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA32

[U+FA31]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA33]
免 U+2F80E, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F80E
𠘺
[U+2F80D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 兔
[U+2F80F]

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

A variant form with rather than on top exists.

There is another variant, in which the left handed stroke is written as two separate components. This variant is adopted by Japanese shinjitai.

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +5 in Chinese, 儿+6 in Japanese, in Chinese 7 strokes, in Japanese 8 strokes, cangjie input 弓日竹山 (NAHU), four-corner 27416, composition(U+FA32) or ⿱(GTK) or ⿳𫩏(J))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 264, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 270, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+514D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mronʔ
*mronʔ, *mronʔ, *m̥ʰons, *monʔ, *mons, *muns
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ, *moːn, *muns
*m̥ʰos
*muːlʔ
*moːn
*moːn
*m̥ʰons
*monʔ
*monʔ
*monʔ, *mons
*monʔ, *mons, *muns
*muns

Pictogram (象形) – a man in a hat. Borrowed for abstract meanings. The derivative (OC *mronʔ) refers to the original word.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • miang2/miêng2 - literary (including “there is no need”, miêng2 - Chaozhou);
  • ming2/mêng2 - vernacular (mêng2 - Jieyang).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (79)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mˠiᴇnX/
Pan
Wuyun
/mᵚiɛnX/
Shao
Rongfen
/miænX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mianX/
Li
Rong
/mjɛnX/
Wang
Li
/mĭɛnX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ɛnX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
miǎn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
miǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjenX ›
Old
Chinese
/*mr[o][r]ʔ/
English avoid

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9065
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mronʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to take off; to remove from the body
  2. to release; to set free
  3. to excuse from; to exempt
  4. to discharge; to waive; to forgive
  5. to dismiss from office
  6. to be not allowed; to be forbidden to
  7. (Min Nan) it is not necessary; there is no need
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 不用 (“need not”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 不必無須毋庸
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 不必毋須無須無須乎
Mandarin Beijing 不用甭用
Taiwan 不用
Shenyang
Jinan
Xi'an 不用
Wuhan 不消用不著
Chengdu 不消
Kunming 不用
Yangzhou 用不著
Hefei 不用
Cantonese Guangzhou 唔使
Hong Kong 唔使
Dongguan 唔使
Taishan 唔使
Yangjiang 無使使乜
Gan Nanchang 不消用不著
Hakka Meixian 毋使
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 毋使
Liudui (S. Sixian) 毋使
Hsinchu (Hailu) 毋使
Dongshi (Dabu) 毋使
Zhuolan (Raoping) 毋使
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 毋使
Jin Taiyuan 不用
Min Bei Jian'ou 伓讓
Min Dong Fuzhou 伓使
Matsu 伓使
Min Nan Xiamen 毋免毋使
Quanzhou 毋免
Zhangzhou 毋免毋使
Taipei 毋免
Kaohsiung 毋免
Penang 毋免
Chaozhou 免用
Wu Shanghai 勿要
Suzhou 用勿著
Wenzhou 覅用否用
Xiang Changsha 不消
Shuangfeng 不消不要

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) Alternative form of (“a kind of mourning apparel”).
  2. bud

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana めん, rōmaji men)

  1. dismissal, being made to quit

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(myeon, mun) (hangeul , , revised myeon, mun, McCune-Reischauer myŏn, mun, Yale myen, mwun)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(miễn, mấy, mến, mém, mễm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.