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See also:
U+514D, 免
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-514D

[U+514C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514E]
U+FA32, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA32

[U+FA31]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA33]
免 U+2F80E, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F80E
𠘺
[U+2F80D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 兔
[U+2F80F]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

A variant form with rather than on top exists.

There is another variant, in which the left handed stroke is written as two separate components. This variant is adopted by Japanese shinjitai.

Han character[edit]

(radical 10, +5 in Chinese, 儿+6 in Japanese, 7 strokes in Chinese, 8 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓日竹山 (NAHU), four-corner 27416, composition⿸⿻丿(GHTK) or ⿳𫩏(JV) or ⿱⿸⿻丿(U+FA32))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 264, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 270, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+514D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script
免-bronze-shang.svg 免-oracle.svg 免-bronze.svg 免-silk.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a man in a hat. Borrowed for abstract meanings. The derivative (OC *mronʔ) refers to the original word.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • miang2/miêng2 - literary (including “there is no need”, miêng2 - Chaozhou);
  • ming2/mêng2 - vernacular (mêng2 - Jieyang).
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiᴇnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiɛnX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miænX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mianX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mjɛnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɛnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɛnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    miǎn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    miǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjenX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mr[o][r]ʔ/
    English avoid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9065
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mronʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to take off; to remove from the body
    2. to release; to set free
    3. to excuse from; to exempt
    4. to discharge; to waive; to forgive
    5. to dismiss from office
    6. to be not allowed; to be forbidden to
    7. (Min Nan) it is not necessary; there is no need
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) Alternative form of (“a kind of mourning apparel”).
    2. bud

    Compounds[edit]

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. to avoid, to escape
    2. to release, to set free, to discharge
    3. to exempt
    4. to forgive
    5. to dismiss, to discharge
      Antonyms :

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (めん) (men

    1. dismissal, being made to quit

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (myeon, mun) (hangeul , , revised myeon, mun, McCune–Reischauer myŏn, mun, Yale myen, mwun)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: miễn, mấy, mến, mém, mễm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.