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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
任-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
任-oracle.svg 任-bronze.svg 任-silk.svg 任-bigseal.svg 任-seal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njɯm, *njɯms): semantic  ‎(person) + phonetic  ‎(OC *l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm) – a person doing their duty.

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人竹土 (OHG), four-corner 22214, composition)

  1. trust to, rely on, appoint
  2. to bear, duty, office
  3. allow
  4. a Chinese surname

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 94, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 416
  • Dae Jaweon: page 200, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 122, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4EFB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 任 (姓) 任 (責)
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/ /ʐən⁵¹/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/ /ʐən⁵³/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
/in⁵³/
/ʐən⁵³/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/ /ʐẽ²¹/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/ /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/ /ʐən³¹²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/ /ʐẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²⁴/ /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/ /ʐəŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/ /ʐə̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/ /ʐɤŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/ /nən³⁵/
Chengdu /zən³¹/ /zən¹³/
Guiyang /zen²¹/ /zen²¹³/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/ /ʐə̃²¹²/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/ /ʐən⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/ /ʐən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/ /zəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/ /ʐəŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/ /ʐə̃ŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /ȵin¹³/ /zən³¹/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/ /zen¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³¹/ /zaŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃²²/ /iʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /ian¹¹/ /ian¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/ /ʐən⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lɨn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /im⁵³/ /im⁵³/
Taoyuan /im⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐm²¹/ /jɐm²²/
Nanning /jɐm²²/ /jɐm²²/
Hong Kong /jɐm²¹/ /jɐm²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim³⁵/ /lim²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/ /ɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ²¹/ /iŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/ /zim³⁵/
/zim³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/ /zim³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (38) (38)
Final () (139) (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪm/ /ȵiɪmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵim/ /ȵimH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjem/ /ȵʑjemH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵim/ /ȵimH/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəm/ /ȵiəmH/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕm/ /ȵʑĭĕmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əm/ /ȵʑi̯əmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén rèn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyimH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[ə]m-s/
English burden; charge (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10808 10823
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯm/ /*njɯms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. responsibility
  2. duty
  3. term
  4. entrust to
  5. appoint

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にん, romaji nin)

  1. duty, responsibility, obligation

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(im) (hangeul , revised yim, McCune-Reischauer im)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhậm, nhẩm, nhầm, nhiệm, nhâm, nhăm, nhặm, vững)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]