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U+4EFB, 任
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EFB

[U+4EFA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EFC]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人竹土 (OHG), four-corner 22214, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 94, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 416
  • Dae Jaweon: page 200, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 122, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4EFB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
任-oracle.svg 任-bronze.svg 任-silk.svg 任-seal.svg 任-bigseal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯmʔ
*nɯms
*njɯm, *njɯms
*l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯms
*njɯms

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njɯm, *njɯms): semantic  (person) + phonetic  (OC *l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm) – to carry on a shoulder pole.

Note that its phonetic part (OC *njɯm) may be the graphical representation of , depicting a shoulder pole that was rotated for 90 degrees.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 任 (責)
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən⁵¹/
Harbin /ʐən⁵³/
Tianjin /in⁵³/
/ʐən⁵³/
Jinan /ʐẽ²¹/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən³¹²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nən³⁵/
Chengdu /zən¹³/
Guiyang /zen²¹³/
Kunming /ʐə̃²¹²/
Nanjing /ʐən⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən³¹/
Hangzhou /zen¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /ian¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lɨn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /im⁵³/
Taoyuan /im⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐm²²/
Nanning /jɐm²²/
Hong Kong /jɐm²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/
/zim³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zim³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (38)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵimH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjemH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵimH/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəmH/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rèn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyimH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[ə]m-s/
English burden; charge (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10823
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to carry on a shoulder pole; to carry
  2. to bear; to endure; to put up with
  3. to take charge of; to assume the post of; to be in charge of
  4. to trust to; to rely on; to believe; to guarantee
  5. to appoint; to assign someone to a post
  6. to indulge; to be self-indulgent; to allow
  7. load; burden; luggage; baggage
  8. duty; responsibility; obligation
  9. tenure; term of office; incumbency
  10. office; post; position
  11. officeholder; postholder
  12. even if; even though
  13. no matter how; regardless of
  14. Classifier for terms of office.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note: vernacular (“surname”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 任 (姓)
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /zən³¹/
Guiyang /zen²¹/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /ian¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /im⁵³/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐm²¹/
Nanning /jɐm²²/
Hong Kong /jɐm²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (38)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵim/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəm/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10808
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) an ancient woman's rank of nobility
  2. (historical) an ancient music of the southern indigenous people
  3. Alternative form of (rén, “artful”).
  4. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. responsibility
  2. duty
  3. term
  4. entrust to
  5. appoint

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)

  1. duty, responsibility, obligation

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(im) (hangeul , revised yim, McCune-Reischauer im)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhậm, nhẩm, nhầm, nhiệm, nhâm, nhăm, nhặm, vững)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]