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U+4EFB, 任
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EFB

[U+4EFA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EFC]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
任-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人竹土 (OHG), four-corner 22214, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 94, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 416
  • Dae Jaweon: page 200, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 122, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4EFB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
任-oracle.svg 任-bronze.svg 任-silk.svg 任-bigseal.svg 任-seal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯmʔ
*nɯms
*njɯm, *njɯms
*l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯms
*njɯms

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njɯm, *njɯms): semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm) – to carry on a shoulder pole.

Note that its phonetic part (OC *njɯm) may be the graphical representation of , depicting a shoulder pole that was rotated for 90 degrees.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 任 (責)
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən⁵¹/
Harbin /ʐən⁵³/
Tianjin /in⁵³/
/ʐən⁵³/
Jinan /ʐẽ²¹/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən³¹²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nən³⁵/
Chengdu /zən¹³/
Guiyang /zen²¹³/
Kunming /ʐə̃²¹²/
Nanjing /ʐən⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən³¹/
Hangzhou /zen¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /ian¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lɨn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /im⁵³/
Taoyuan /im⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐm²²/
Nanning /jɐm²²/
Hong Kong /jɐm²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/
/zim³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zim³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (38)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵimH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjemH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵimH/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəmH/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rèn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyimH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[ə]m-s/
English burden; charge (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10823
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to carry on a shoulder pole; to carry
  2. to bear; to endure; to put up with
  3. to take charge of; to assume the post of; to be in charge of
  4. to trust to; to rely on; to believe; to guarantee
  5. to appoint; to assign someone to a post
  6. to indulge; to be self-indulgent; to allow
  7. load; burden; luggage; baggage
  8. duty; responsibility; obligation
  9. tenure; term of office; incumbency
  10. office; post; position
  11. officeholder; postholder
  12. even if; even though
  13. no matter how; regardless of
  14. Classifier for terms of office.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note: vernacular (“surname”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 任 (姓)
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /zən³¹/
Guiyang /zen²¹/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /ian¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /im⁵³/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐm²¹/
Nanning /jɐm²²/
Hong Kong /jɐm²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zim³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (38)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵim/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəm/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10808
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) an ancient woman's rank of nobility
  2. (historical) an ancient music of the southern indigenous people
  3. Alternative form of (rén, “artful”).
  4. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. responsibility
  2. duty
  3. term
  4. entrust to
  5. appoint

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にん, romaji nin)

  1. duty, responsibility, obligation

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(im) (hangeul , revised yim, McCune-Reischauer im)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhậm, nhẩm, nhầm, nhiệm, nhâm, nhăm, nhặm, vững)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]