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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TO.png
U+3068, と
HIRAGANA LETTER TO

[U+3067]
Hiragana
[U+3069]

Japanese[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji to)

  1. The hiragana syllable (to). Its equivalent in katakana is (to). It is the twentieth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō o-dan, row ta, section o).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

⟨to2 → */tə//to/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tə.

Particle[edit]

(to

  1. with
    (ぼく)()たい?
    Boku to ikitai?
    Do you want to go with me?
    あなた(いっ)(しょ)()ます。
    Anata to issho ni ikimasu.
    I will go with you.
  2. (when between nouns) and (In this sense, can be reduplicated)
    (かの)(じょ)(えい)()フランス()(と)が(はな)る。
    Kanojo wa eigo to furansugo (to) ga hanaseru.
    She can speak English and French.
    それこれ
    Sore to kore.
    That and this.
    (いぬ)(ねこ)(と)を(わたし)()っている。
    Inu to neko (to) o watashi wa katteiru.
    I keep the dog and the cat.
  3. a particle following a phrase or clause describing the detail, content or manner of the action, similar to a complement.
    (ねが)!」と(かの)(じょ)()った。
    “onegai!” to, kanojo wa itta.
    "Please!", she said.
    なんだと!?
    Nan da to!?
    What!?
    これはダメだと(おも)います。
    Kore wa dame da to omoimasu.
    I think this won't work.
    小川(おがわ)(あつ)めて大河(たいが)なる。
    Ogawa ga atsumete taiga to naru.
    Small streams gather and become a big river.
    (こおり)()
    kōri to kasu
    become ice
  4. if (when appended to a dictionary-form verb and followed by a present-tense sentence)
    (べん)(きょう)する()かる
    Benkyō suru to wakaru.
    If you study, you'll understand.
    (えん)(だか)(すす)()(ほん)(けい)(ざい)(こん)(らん)する。
    Endaka ga susumu to, Nihon keizai ga konran suru.
    If the high yen continues, the Japanese economy will be in dire straits.
    ()(さん)()ける(ろく)なる
    Ni to san o kakeru to roku ni naru.
    If you multiply two and three, they make six.
  5. when (when appended to a dictionary form verb and followed by a past-tense sentence)
    マンハッタン()(だい)(がく)(とも)(だち)()た。
    Manhattan e iku to, daigaku no tomodachi ni atta.
    When I went to Manhattan, I met a friend from university.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (to) in the sense of "and" can only be used to conjoin nouns; not verbs or sentences. They are joined by conjugation.
  • (to) in the sense of "and" implies that the list is complete. In the above sentence, the subject only speaks English and French. To imply other items, the particles とか (toka) or (ya) are used in lieu of (to). The particle など (nado, etc., and so on) can be appended to a list of nouns conjoined by to imply that there are other items on the list.
  • (to) in the sense of "if" can be interchangeable with the conditional particles (ba) and たら (tara)/なら (nara) if the conditionals describe a hypothetical effect of an action.
  • When (to) is used in the meaning "when" it implies that something happened abruptly. See とき (toki).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

(to

  1. Short for と金 (tokin): a promoted 歩兵 (fuhyō, pawn) that moves like a 金将 (kinshō, gold general)