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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TO.png
U+3068, と



Stroke order
2 strokes


Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.


(romaji to)

  1. The hiragana syllable (to). Its equivalent in katakana is (to). It is the twentieth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō o-dan, row ta, section o).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]


(rōmaji to)

  1. with
     (ぼく) ()たい?
    Boku to ikitai?
    Do you want to go with me?
    あなた (いっ) (しょ) ()ます。
    Anata to issho ni ikimasu.
    I will go with you.
  2. (when between nouns) and
    彼女 (かのじょ) (えい) ()フランス () (はな)る。
    Kanojo wa eigo to furansugo ga hanaseru.
    She can speak English and French.
    Sore to kore.
    That and this.
  3. used as a quotation
     (うみ)へ!」 (さけ)だ。
    “Umi e!” to sakenda.
    "To the sea!" he cried.
  4. if (when appended to a dictionary-form verb and followed by a present-tense sentence)
     (べん) (きょう)する ()かる
    Benkyō suru to wakaru.
    If you study, you'll understand.
    円高 (えんだか) (すす) () (ほん)経済 (けいざい) (こん) (らん)する。
    Endaka ga susumu to, nihon keizai ga konran suru.
    If the high yen continues, the Japanese economy will be in dire straits.
     () (さん) ()ける (ろく)なる
    Ni to san o kakeru to roku ni naru.
    If you multiply two and three, they make six.
  5. when (when appended to a dictionary form verb and followed by a past-tense sentence)
    マンハッタン ()大学 (だいがく)友達 (ともだち) ()た。
    Manhattan e iku to, daigaku no tomodachi ni atta.
    When I went to Manhattan, I met a friend from university.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (to) in the sense of "and" can only be used to conjoin nouns; not verbs or sentences. They are joined by conjugation.
  • (to) in the sense of "and" implies that the list is complete. In the above sentence, the subject only speaks English and French. To imply other items, the particles とか (toka) or (ya) are used in lieu of (to). The particle など (nado, etc., and so on) can be appended to a list of nouns conjoined by to imply that there are other items on the list.
  • (to) in the sense of "if" can be interchangeable with the conditional particles (ba) and たら (tara)/なら (nara) if the conditionals describe a hypothetical effect of an action.
  • When (to) is used in the meaning "when" it implies that something happened abruptly. See とき (toki).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]