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See also:
U+5F92, 徒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F92

[U+5F91]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F93]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 60, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹人土卜人 (HOGYO), four-corner 24281, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 367, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10121
  • Dae Jaweon: page 691, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 823, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+5F92

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
徒-seal.svg

Small seal script: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aː): semantic  (walk) + phonetic  (OC *l̥ʰaːʔ, *l'aːʔ). Later corrupted into  + .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duo/
Pan
Wuyun
/duo/
Shao
Rongfen
/do/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɔ/
Li
Rong
/do/
Wang
Li
/du/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ du ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ˁa/
English go on foot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12494
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to be on foot
  2. foot soldier
  3. disciple; follower; adherent
  4. religious follower; apostle; worshipper
  5. prison sentence
  6. (derogatory) suffix for people with certain characteristics
  7. bare; plain
      ―  xiǎn  ―  barefoot
      ―  shǒu  ―  with one's bare hands
  8. merely; only; just
  9. in vain; unsuccessfully; to no avail
    /   ―  láo  ―  to be futile
  10. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. going on foot
  2. empty-handed
  3. useless, in vain
  4. disciple
  5. a party, a gang
  6. criminal, penal servitude

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いたずら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Adjective[edit]

(いたずら) (itazura-nari (historical kana いたづら)

  1. (Classical Japanese) useless, pointless, fruitless
  2. (Classical Japanese) unsatisfied because there is nothing to be; tasteless
  3. (Classical Japanese) in idleness

Noun[edit]

(いたずら) (itazura (historical kana いたづら)

  1. a kind of women's hairstyles in the late Edo period
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あだ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(あだ) (ada-nari

  1. (Classical Japanese) useless, fruitless
  2. (Classical Japanese) ephemeral, temporary
  3. (Classical Japanese) fickle, frivolous
  4. (Classical Japanese) slack, lukewarm
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かち
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
かち
[noun] , , 歩行, 徒歩: (dated) walking, going on foot
[noun] , , 歩行, 徒歩, 徒士: (historical) a lower-level samurai who accompanies with the master in walking and goes on the beginning of the parade
Alternative spellings
, , 歩行, 徒歩, 徒士
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
ただ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ただ
[conjunction] but, however, although
[adverb] merely, commonly, simply, only
Alternative spellings
, , , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
むだ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
無駄むだ
[adjectival noun] useless, no good
[adjectival noun] wasteful
[noun] uselessness; no good; being in vain; futility
[noun] waste
Alternative spellings
, ムダ
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kan’on

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (to

  1. fellows, same kind people; a set, a party, a gang
    Synonyms: (yakara), (tomogara)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
goon

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (zu (historical kana )

  1. one of the punishments in the ancient Ritsuryō system; penal servitude
    Synonyms: 徒刑 (tokei), 懲役 (chōeki)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
かし
Grade: 4
Irregular

<kasi> → /kaɕi/

From Eastern dialectal form of Old Japanese. Cognate with Modern Japanese かち (kachi, walking, going on foot)

Noun[edit]

(かし) (kashi

  1. (Classical Japanese, dialectal) Obsolete form of かち (kachi): walking, going on foot
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4417)
      阿加胡麻乎(あかごまを) 夜麻努尓波賀志(やまのにはがし) 刀里加尓弖(とりかにて) 多麻能余許夜麻(たまのよこやま) 加志(かし)由加也良牟(ゆかやらむ) [Man'yōgana]
      赤駒(あかごま)を 山野(やまの)(はが)し ()りかにて 多摩(たま)横山(よこやま) (かし)ゆか()らむ [Modern spelling]
      <Akago1ma wo yamano1 ni pagasi to1rikanite Tama no2 yo2ko2yama kasi yuka yaramu>
      → Akagoma o yamano ni hagashi torikanite Tama no yokoyama kashi yuka yaramu
      Having our red horse pastured on the mountain field, but we couldn't catch it; so I'll send him, who'll go on foot through the mountains on the side of Tama.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(do) (hangeul , revised do, McCune–Reischauer to, Yale to)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đồ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.