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gw u5f92.svg
U+5F92, 徒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F92

[U+5F91]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F93]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 60, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹人土卜人 (HOGYO), four-corner 24281, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 367, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10121
  • Dae Jaweon: page 691, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 823, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+5F92

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
徒-seal.svg

Small seal script: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aː): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *l̥ʰaːʔ, *l'aːʔ). Later corrupted into + .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duo/
Pan
Wuyun
/duo/
Shao
Rongfen
/do/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɔ/
Li
Rong
/do/
Wang
Li
/du/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tou4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ du ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ˁa/
English go on foot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12494
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to be on foot
  2. foot soldier
  3. disciple; follower; adherent
  4. religious follower; apostle; worshipper
  5. prison sentence
  6. (derogatory) suffix for people with certain characteristics
      ―  bào  ―  thug
      ―  dǎi  ―  ruffian
  7. bare; plain
      ―  xiǎn  ―  barefoot
      ―  shǒu  ―  with one's bare hands
  8. merely; only; just
  9. in vain; unsuccessfully; to no avail
    /   ―  láo  ―  to be futile
  10. A surname.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. going on foot
  2. empty-handed
  3. useless, in vain
  4. disciple
  5. a party, a gang
  6. criminal, penal servitude

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いたずら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Adjective[edit]

(いたずら) (itazuraいたづら (itadura)? -nari

  1. useless, pointless, fruitless
  2. unsatisfied because there is nothing to be; tasteless
  3. in idleness

Noun[edit]

(いたずら) (itazuraいたづら (itadura)?

  1. a kind of women's hairstyles in the late Edo period
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あだ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(あだ) (ada-nari

  1. useless, fruitless
    一度(いちど)(かぎ)りの人生(じんせい)(あだ)にしてしまう
    ichido kagiri no jinsei o ada ni shiteshimau
    to make one's one-time life gone ruined
  2. (now rare) ephemeral, temporary
  3. (now rare) fickle, frivolous
  4. (now rare) slack, lukewarm
  5. (historical, poetry) the term of the 蕉風俳諧(しょうふうはいかい) (shōfūhaikai, Bashō style haikai) to indicate innocent and humorous style
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かち
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
かち
[noun] , , 歩行, 徒歩: (dated) walking, going on foot
[noun] , , 歩行, 徒歩, 徒士: (historical) a lower-level samurai who accompanies with the master in walking and goes on the beginning of the parade
Alternative spellings
, , 歩行, 徒歩, 徒士
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
ただ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ただ
[conjunction] but, however, although
[adverb] merely, commonly, simply, only
Alternative spellings
, , , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
むだ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
無駄むだ
[adjectival noun] useless,pointless;meaningless
[adjectival noun] wasteful
[noun] uselessness; no good; being in vain; futility
[noun] waste
Alternative spellings
, ムダ
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kan’on

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (to

  1. fellows, same kind people; a set, a party, a gang
    Synonyms: (yakara), (tomogara)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
goon

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (zu (du)?

  1. (historical) one of the punishments in the ancient Ritsuryō system; penal servitude
    Synonyms: 徒刑 (tokei), 懲役 (chōeki)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
かし
Grade: 4
Irregular

<kasi> → /kaɕi/

From Eastern dialectal form of Old Japanese. Cognate with Modern Japanese かち (kachi, walking, going on foot)

Noun[edit]

(かし) (kashi

  1. (Classical Japanese, dialectal) Obsolete form of かち (kachi): walking, going on foot
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4417)
      阿加胡麻乎(あかごまを) 夜麻努尓波賀志(やまのにはがし) 刀里加尓弖(とりかにて) 多麻能余許夜麻(たまのよこやま) 加志(かし)由加也良牟(ゆかやらむ) [Man'yōgana]
      赤駒(あかごま)を 山野(やまの)(はが)し ()りかにて 多摩(たま)横山(よこやま) (かし)ゆか()らむ [Modern spelling]
      <Akago1ma wo yamano1 ni pagasi to1rikanite Tama no2 yo2ko2yama kasi yuka yaramu>
      → Akagoma o yamano ni hagashi torikanite Tama no yokoyama kashi yuka yaramu
      Having our red horse pastured on the mountain field, but we couldn't catch it; so I'll send him, who'll go on foot through the mountains on the side of Tama.

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC duo). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: two) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 무리 (muri do))

  1. Hanja form? of (party; gang; group; disciple).
  2. Hanja form? of (going on foot).
  3. Hanja form? of (useless; in vain).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: đồ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.