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U+52A9, 助
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52A9

[U+52A8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+52AA]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
助-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 19 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月一大尸 (BMKS), four-corner 74127, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 27
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2313
  • Dae Jaweon: page 330, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 368, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+52A9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
助-bigseal.svg 助-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*zaːl, *zaː
*zlaːl, *sʰaːʔ
*rnaː, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaː, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː, *ʔsas, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː
*ʔslja, *ʔsraːʔ
*ʔsjaːʔ
*ʔsljaːʔ, *ljaːʔ, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaːʔ
*sʰjaːʔ, *ʔsa
*sʰjaːs, *sʰa
*sʰjaːs
*ʔsraː, *zraː, *zraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*zraː
*zraː, *ʔsa, *ʔsaʔ, *sʰa
*ʔslaːŋʔ, *zaːʔ
*ʔsaː
*ʔsaː, *ʔsaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*sʰaː, *zaːʔ
*zaː
*zaː
*zaːʔ, *zras
*zaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *ʔsas, *sʰa, *zaʔ, *ʔsra
*ʔsaʔ, *zaʔ
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*zaʔ
*das
*ʔsra
*ʔsra
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*ʔsraʔ
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*zra, *zraʔ
*zra
*zra
*zra, *zras
*zraʔ
*zras

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zras): phonetic (OC *sʰjaːʔ, *ʔsa) + semantic (strong arm) – to help with one’s strength.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂu⁵¹/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂu⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡su⁵³/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂu²¹/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂu⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂu³¹²/
Xi'an /p͡fu⁴⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂv̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡su¹³/
Lanzhou /p͡fu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂu²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡səu³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡su¹³/
Guiyang /t͡su²¹³/
Kunming /t͡su²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡su⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡su⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡su⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡sz̩ʷ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡su⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zu²³/
Suzhou /zəu³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡zu¹³/
Wenzhou /zɤu²²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰu²²/
Tunxi /t͡sʰəu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰəu⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /d͡zəɯ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰu²¹/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰu⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔ²²/
Nanning /t͡sɔ²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sɔ²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sou²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡su⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡so³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /to³³/ 訓佐

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (20)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʒɨʌH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖ͡ʐiɔH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʒiɔH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖ͡ʐɨə̆H/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʒiɔH/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʒĭoH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɖ͡ʐʱi̯woH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhù
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhù
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzrjoH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ra-s/
English help (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10457
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zras/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to help; to aid; to assist

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana すけ, romaji suke)

  1. assistance

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana じょ, romaji jo-)

  1. help
  2. assistant

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune-Reischauer cho, Yale co)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(trợ, rợ, chợ, chữa, đợ, liên)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.