Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: , , and
U+4E14, 且
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E14

[U+4E13]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E15]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 月一 (BM), four-corner 77100, composition𠀃𠄠)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 77, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29
  • Dae Jaweon: page 154, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 15, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E14

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠀇
𠀃

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
且-oracle.svg 且-bronze.svg 且-bigseal.svg 且-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*zaːl, *zaː
*zlaːl, *sʰaːʔ
*rnaː, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaː, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː, *ʔsas, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː
*ʔslja, *ʔsraːʔ
*ʔsjaːʔ
*ʔsljaːʔ, *ljaːʔ, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaːʔ
*sʰjaːʔ, *ʔsa
*sʰjaːs, *sʰa
*sʰjaːs
*ʔsraː, *zraː, *zraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*zraː
*zraː, *ʔsa, *ʔsaʔ, *sʰa
*ʔslaːŋʔ, *zaːʔ
*ʔsaː
*ʔsaː, *ʔsaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*sʰaː, *zaːʔ
*zaː
*zaː
*zaːʔ, *zras
*zaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *ʔsas, *sʰa, *zaʔ, *ʔsra
*ʔsaʔ, *zaʔ
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*zaʔ
*das
*ʔsra
*ʔsra
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*ʔsraʔ
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*zra, *zraʔ
*zra
*zra
*zra, *zras
*zraʔ
*zras

Pictogram (象形). Multiple interpretations:

  • A sacrificial vessel used for chopping and holding meat, as viewed from above (Wang, 1923) – original form of (OC *ʔsraʔ).
  • An erect penis, the symbol of the male ancestor (Guo, 1931) – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).
  • A stone altar – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).

In the oracle bones and bronze inscriptions, this character was commonly used as (OC *ʔsaːʔ). Usage as (OC *ʔsraʔ) is not attested until the Warring States period in the bamboo script.

Etymology[edit]

“and; also; almost; be going to”
Cognate with (OC *ʔsaŋ, *ʔsaŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • 2qia - vernacular;
  • 2qi - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰiaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiaX/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiaX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯aX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiě
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiě
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjæX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]Aʔ/
English moreover

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10379
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰjaːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. this
  2. almost; nearly
  3. be going to; will; shall
  4. just; for the time being
  5. even (placed after a hypothetical extreme scenario for emphasis)
  6. (dialectal) for a long time
  7. and; also (for juxtaposition)
      ―  érqiě  ―  and; but also
  8. both ... and ...
  9. or (to list alternatives)
  10. moreover (to indicate progression)
  11. if; assuming (to indicate hypotheticality)
  12. sentence-initial or sentence-medial modal particle
  13. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡siɔ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsa/
English [final particle]

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10413
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsa/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “chopping board”).
  2. many; numerous; flourishing
  3. sixth month in the lunar calendar
  4. sentence-final modal particle
  5. Alternative form of (zǎng, “steed”).

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“to go to”).

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 次且 (“hesitant in walking”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cha, jeo, jo)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , , (revised: cha, jeo, jo, McCune-Reischauer: ch'a, chŏ, cho)
    • Name (hangeul): , 공경스러울, 도마 (revised: tto, gonggyeongseureoul, doma, McCune-Reischauer: tto, konggyŏngsǔrǒul, toma)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thả, vả, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]