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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Mainland China)
2 strokes
Stroke order
Traditional Chinese and Japanese
乃-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

𠄕

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg ACC-b07035.svg ACC-b07037.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-slip.svg 乃-zhou.svg 乃-ancient.svg 乃-seal.svg 乃-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯːʔ
*nɯːʔ, *nɯːs
*njɯːʔ
*rneːlʔ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ, *njɯŋs
*njɯŋs

From ancient 𠄎.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
Note:
  • nai2 - “you, your”;
  • nai6 - "just", "then", "be".
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nai²³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nɑ̆iX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nǎi nǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˁəʔ/
    English your then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9337
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nɯːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) be
      失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
    2. (literary) then
    3. (literary) just
    4. (literary) you, your
    5. (Mainland China, Internet slang) you (singular)
    6. (Shanghai) now
    Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 當今, 此時, 方今, 今朝, 如今, 而今
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在, 現今, 當今, 此時, 此刻, 如今, 而今
    Mandarin Beijing 現在, 現而今
    Taiwan 現在
    Harbin 現在, 現如今, 現下, 現前兒
    Shenyang 現在
    Hailar 現在
    Ulan Hot 現在
    Tongliao 現在
    Chifeng 現在
    Bayanhot 現在
    Jinan 現在, 如今, 現如今
    Muping 這時晚兒, 現時晚兒
    Luoyang 現在, 而今, 現如今
    Jiedian 人根, 移根
    Xi'an 致兒, 現在
    Xuzhou 眼今, 眼是, 腳底下, 現如今, 現而今 dated, 至而今 dated
    Yinchuan 現在
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 眼下, 現在
    Wuhan 如今, 此如今
    Chengdu 這陣子, 這陣, 這下兒, 這個時候, 現在
    Guiyang 這下, 這崗, , 這歇, 這個時候
    Liuzhou 一寁
    Kunming 現在
    Yangzhou 現在
    Nanjing 現在
    Hefei 而今, 如今
    Cantonese Guangzhou 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 那下
    Taishan 該時
    Dongguan 家下, 那下
    Yangjiang 果陣
    Xinyi 個陣
    Nanning 而家, 而卡
    Wuzhou 家陣, 而家
    Kuala Lumpur 而家
    Gan Nanchang 現在, 如今
    Lichuan 該行崽
    Pingxiang 該仔, 如今
    Hakka Meixian 今下, 今仔下
    Xingning 如下
    Huidong 今下
    Qujiang 如今
    Xiaosanjiang 如今
    Changting 如今
    Pingyu
    Wuping 今下
    Liancheng 已久
    Ninghua 今子
    Yudu 如今
    Ruijin 如今, 今下子
    Shicheng 今底
    Shangyou 如今
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今下, 今時, 今這下
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今嘎, 今這下
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下, 現下, 今這下
    Dongshi (Dabu) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 這滿
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 今下, 今時
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下, 現時, 今這下, 這滿
    Hong Kong 今下
    Sabah 今下, 今下子, 今下仔
    Senai 今下
    Huizhou Jixi 爾歇
    Shexian 爾扎兒
    Jin Taiyuan 如今, 而今
    Xinzhou 現時
    Baochang 現在
    Jining 這會兒
    Hohhot 這會兒
    Baotou 這會兒
    Dongsheng 這會兒
    Linhe 這咱會兒
    Haibowan 如今
    Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今, 今迦, 現刻
    Dikou
    Zhenqian
    Wuyishan 今下
    Shibei , 今下
    Min Dong Fuzhou 現時, 現刻, 現在, 現今,
    Fuqing 現時
    Ningde 現在,
    Fuding 足古
    Min Nan Xiamen 這陣, 這滿, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時,
    Quanzhou 這陣, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現當今,
    Zhangzhou 這陣, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現主在, 現在, 現曾,
    Taipei 這馬, 這站 mT, 現主時 mT
    Kaohsiung , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Tainan , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Taichung 這馬, 這陣
    Wuqi 這馬
    Hsinchu 這陣, 這馬
    Taitung 這馬
    Lukang 這陣, 這馬, 這路尾
    Sanxia 這馬
    Yilan , 這陣, 這馬
    Kinmen 這陣
    Magong 這陣, , 這馬
    Penang 今仔, 當今
    Singapore 這時, 這陣, 當今
    Philippines (Manila) 這陣
    Chaozhou 此在, 現在, 現時
    Johor Bahru 現在
    Wenchang 現旦
    Haikou 現旦
    Leizhou 現旦
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning 而今
    Wu Shanghai 現在,
    Suzhou 現在, 姑歇, 哀歇, 該歇
    Hangzhou 記歇
    Wenzhou 恁界, 恁仰界
    Chongming 那末
    Danyang 格歇候, 格娘收, 現在
    Jinhua 格孑
    Xiang Changsha 如今, 如至今, 如嶄, 現在
    Shuangfeng 侯基
    Xiangtan 咯如在
    Loudi 而界, 如今
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. from
    2. possessive particle
    3. whereupon
    4. accordingly

    Readings[edit]

    Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

    See also[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nae)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul):
      • Name (hangeul): 이에 (revised: ie, McCune–Reischauer: ie)
    1. then
    2. really, indeed
    3. as it turned out, after all
    4. namely

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]