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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]
See also: , , , , and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
乃-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-bigseal.svg 乃-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯːʔ
*nɯːʔ, *nɯːs
*njɯːʔ
*rneːlʔ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ, *njɯŋs
*njɯŋs

From ancient 𠄎; Ideogram (指事) – pregnant woman (swollen breasts and belly); compare .

Han character[edit]

(radical 4 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

  1. then
  2. really, indeed
  3. as it turned out, after all
  4. namely
  5. you, your (pre-classical)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
Harbin /nai²¹³/
Tianjin /nai¹³/
Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
Xi'an /nai⁵³/
Xining /nɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
Wuhan /nai⁴²/
Chengdu /nai⁵³/
Guiyang /nai⁴²/
Kunming /næ⁵³/
Nanjing /lae²¹²/
Hefei /le̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
Pingyao /næ⁵³/
Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /na²³/
Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /na³⁵/
Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
Nanning /nai²⁴/
Hong Kong /nai²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjX/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/nɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nǎi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nǎi nǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˤəʔ/
English your then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9337
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. be
  2. just
  3. (Shanghai) now

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 當今現今此時此刻方今今朝如今而今目前
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在
Mandarin Beijing 現在現而今
Taiwan 現在
Jinan 現在如今現如今
Xi'an 現在
Wuhan 如今此如今
Chengdu 現在
Yangzhou 現在
Hefei 而今如今
Cantonese Guangzhou 而家依家家下
Hong Kong 而家依家家下
Taishan 該時
Gan Nanchang 現在如今
Hakka Meixian 今下
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下現下今下今時今這下
Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下現下今嘎今這下
Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下現下今這下
Dongshi (Dabu) 這下現下今這下這滿
Zhuolan (Raoping) 這下現下今這下今下今時
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下現時今這下
Jin Taiyuan 如今而今
Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今今迦現刻
Min Dong Fuzhou 現時現刻
Min Nan Xiamen 這陣這滿這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時
Quanzhou 這陣這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現當今
Zhangzhou 這陣這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現此在現在現曾
Taipei 這馬這站 mT現此時 mT
Kaohsiung 這時這陣這馬
Tainan 這時這陣這馬
Taichung 這馬這陣
Yilan 這陣這馬
Lukang 這陣這馬這路尾
Sanxia 這馬
Kinmen 這陣
Magong 這陣
Hsinchu 這陣這馬
Malaysia 今仔當今
Chaozhou 此在現在現時
Wu Shanghai 現在
Suzhou 現在
Wenzhou 恁界
Xiang Changsha 如今如至今
Shuangfeng 侯基
Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. then
  2. really, indeed
  3. as it turned out, after all
  4. namely
  5. you, your (pre-classical)

Readings[edit]

See also[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ()
  • Name (hangeul): 이에 (revised: ie, McCune-Reischauer: ie)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]