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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]
See also: , , , , and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
乃-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 4 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

𠄕

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-bigseal.svg 乃-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯːʔ
*nɯːʔ, *nɯːs
*njɯːʔ
*rneːlʔ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ, *njɯŋs
*njɯŋs

From ancient 𠄎.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
Harbin /nai²¹³/
Tianjin /nai¹³/
Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
Xi'an /nai⁵³/
Xining /nɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
Wuhan /nai⁴²/
Chengdu /nai⁵³/
Guiyang /nai⁴²/
Kunming /næ⁵³/
Nanjing /lae²¹²/
Hefei /le̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
Pingyao /næ⁵³/
Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /na²³/
Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /na³⁵/
Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
Nanning /nai²⁴/
Hong Kong /nai²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjX/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/nɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nǎi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nǎi nǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˤəʔ/
English your then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9337
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. be
    失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
  2. then
  3. just
  4. you, your
  5. (Shanghai) now
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 當今此時方今今朝如今而今
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在現今當今此時此刻如今而今
Mandarin Beijing 現在現而今
Taiwan 現在
Harbin 現在現如今現下現前兒
Shenyang 現在
Jinan 現在如今現如今
Muping 這時晚兒現時晚兒
Luoyang 現在而今現如今
Jiedian 人根移根
Xi'an 致兒現在
Xuzhou 眼今眼是腳底下現如今現而今 dated至而今 dated
Yinchuan 現在
Lanzhou
Ürümqi 眼下現在
Wuhan 如今此如今
Chengdu 這陣子這陣這哈兒這個時候現在
Guiyang 這下這崗這歇這個時候
Liuzhou 一寁
Kunming 現在
Yangzhou 現在
Nanjing 現在
Hefei 而今如今
Cantonese Guangzhou 而家家下家陣
Hong Kong 而家家下家陣
Dongguan 家下那下
Hong Kong (Weitou) 那下
Taishan 該時
Yangjiang 果陣
Gan Nanchang 現在如今
Lichuan 該行崽
Pingxiang 該仔如今
Hakka Meixian 今下
Xingning 如下
Huidong 今下
Qujiang 如今
Xiaosanjiang 如今
Changting 如今
Pingyu
Wuping 今下
Liancheng 已久
Ninghua 今子
Yudu 如今
Ruijin 如今今下子
Shicheng 今底
Shangyou 如今
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下現下今下今時今這下
Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下現下今嘎今這下
Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下現下今這下
Dongshi (Dabu) 這下現下今這下這滿
Zhuolan (Raoping) 這下現下今這下今下今時
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下現時今這下
Hong Kong 今下
Huizhou Jixi 爾歇
Jin Taiyuan 如今而今
Xinzhou 現時
Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今今迦現刻
Min Dong Fuzhou 現時現刻現在現今
Min Nan Xiamen 這陣這滿這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時
Quanzhou 這陣這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現當今
Zhangzhou 這陣這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現此在現在現曾
Taipei 這馬這站 mT現此時 mT
Kaohsiung 這時這陣這馬
Tainan 這時這陣這馬
Taichung 這馬這陣
Wuqi 這馬
Hsinchu 這陣這馬
Taitung 這馬
Lukang 這陣這馬這路尾
Sanxia 這馬
Yilan 這陣這馬
Kinmen 這陣
Magong 這陣這馬
Penang 今仔當今
Singapore 這時這陣當今
Chaozhou 此在現在現時
Haikou 現旦
Leizhou 現旦
Pinghua Nanning 而今
Wu Shanghai 現在
Suzhou 現在姑歇哀歇該歇
Hangzhou 記歇
Wenzhou 恁界恁仰界
Chongming 那末
Danyang 格歇候格娘收現在
Jinhua 格孑
Xiang Changsha 如今如至今如嶄現在
Shuangfeng 侯基
Loudi 而界如今
Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. from
  2. possessive particle
  3. whereupon
  4. accordingly

Readings[edit]

See also[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nae)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul):
    • Name (hangeul): 이에 (revised: ie, McCune-Reischauer: ie)
  1. then
  2. really, indeed
  3. as it turned out, after all
  4. namely

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]