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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
乃-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-bigseal.svg 乃-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

From ancient 𠄎; Ideogram (指事) – pregnant woman (swollen breasts and belly); compare .

Han character[edit]

(radical 4 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

  1. then
  2. really, indeed
  3. as it turned out, after all
  4. namely
  5. you, your (pre-classical)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
Harbin /nai²¹³/
Tianjin /nai¹³/
Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
Xi'an /nai⁵³/
Xining /nɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
Wuhan /nai⁴²/
Chengdu /nai⁵³/
Guiyang /nai⁴²/
Kunming /næ⁵³/
Nanjing /lae²¹²/
Hefei /le̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
Pingyao /næ⁵³/
Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /na²³/
Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /na³⁵/
Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
Nanning /nai²⁴/
Hong Kong /nai²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjX/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/nɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nǎi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nǎi nǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˤəʔ/
English your then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9337
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. be
  2. just
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. then
  2. really, indeed
  3. as it turned out, after all
  4. namely
  5. you, your (pre-classical)

Readings[edit]

See also[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: nae, McCune-Reischauer: nae, Yale: nay)
  • Name (hangeul): 이에 (revised: ie, McCune-Reischauer: ie)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]