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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
乃-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 4 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

𠄕

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg ACC-b07035.svg ACC-b07037.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-slip.svg 乃-zhou.svg 乃-ancient.svg 乃-seal.svg 乃-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯːʔ
*nɯːʔ, *nɯːs
*njɯːʔ
*rneːlʔ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ, *njɯŋs
*njɯŋs

From ancient 𠄎.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nai²³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nɑ̆iX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nǎi nǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˤə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˤəʔ/
    English your then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9337
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nɯːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) be
      失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
    2. (literary) then
    3. (literary) just
    4. (literary) you, your
    5. (Mainland China, Internet slang) you
    6. (Shanghai) now
    Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 當今此時方今今朝如今而今
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在現今當今此時此刻如今而今
    Mandarin Beijing 現在現而今
    Taiwan 現在
    Harbin 現在現如今現下現前兒
    Shenyang 現在
    Hailar 現在
    Ulan Hot 現在
    Tongliao 現在
    Chifeng 現在
    Bayanhot 現在
    Jinan 現在如今現如今
    Muping 這時晚兒現時晚兒
    Luoyang 現在而今現如今
    Jiedian 人根移根
    Xi'an 致兒現在
    Xuzhou 眼今眼是腳底下現如今現而今 dated至而今 dated
    Yinchuan 現在
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 眼下現在
    Wuhan 如今此如今
    Chengdu 這陣子這陣這哈兒這個時候現在
    Guiyang 這下這崗這歇這個時候
    Liuzhou 一寁
    Kunming 現在
    Yangzhou 現在
    Nanjing 現在
    Hefei 而今如今
    Cantonese Guangzhou 而家家下家陣
    Hong Kong 而家家下家陣
    Dongguan 家下那下
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 那下
    Taishan 該時
    Yangjiang 果陣
    Kuala Lumpur 而家
    Gan Nanchang 現在如今
    Lichuan 該行崽
    Pingxiang 該仔如今
    Hakka Meixian 今下
    Xingning 如下
    Huidong 今下
    Qujiang 如今
    Xiaosanjiang 如今
    Changting 如今
    Pingyu
    Wuping 今下
    Liancheng 已久
    Ninghua 今子
    Yudu 如今
    Ruijin 如今今下子
    Shicheng 今底
    Shangyou 如今
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下現下今下今時今這下
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下現下今嘎今這下
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下現下今這下
    Dongshi (Dabu) 這下現下今這下這滿
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 這下現下今這下今下今時
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下現時今這下
    Hong Kong 今下
    Senai 今下
    Huizhou Shexian 爾扎兒
    Jixi 爾歇
    Jin Taiyuan 如今而今
    Xinzhou 現時
    Baochang 現在
    Jining 這會兒
    Hohhot 這會兒
    Baotou 這會兒
    Dongsheng 這會兒
    Linhe 這咱會兒
    Haibowan 如今
    Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今今迦現刻
    Dikou
    Zhenqian
    Wuyishan 今下
    Shibei 今下
    Min Dong Fuzhou 現時現刻現在現今
    Fuqing 現時
    Ningde 現在
    Fuding 足古
    Min Nan Xiamen 這陣這滿這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時
    Quanzhou 這陣這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現當今
    Zhangzhou 這陣這輒仔這輒這站仔這站這幫現此時現時現此在現在現曾
    Taipei 這馬這站 mT現此時 mT
    Kaohsiung 這時這陣這馬
    Tainan 這時這陣這馬
    Taichung 這馬這陣
    Wuqi 這馬
    Hsinchu 這陣這馬
    Taitung 這馬
    Lukang 這陣這馬這路尾
    Sanxia 這馬
    Yilan 這陣這馬
    Kinmen 這陣
    Magong 這陣這馬
    Penang 今仔當今
    Singapore 這時這陣當今
    Philippines (Manila) 這陣
    Chaozhou 此在現在現時
    Johor Bahru 現在
    Wenchang 現旦
    Haikou 現旦
    Leizhou 現旦
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning 而今
    Wu Shanghai 現在
    Suzhou 現在姑歇哀歇該歇
    Hangzhou 記歇
    Wenzhou 恁界恁仰界
    Chongming 那末
    Danyang 格歇候格娘收現在
    Jinhua 格孑
    Xiang Changsha 如今如至今如嶄現在
    Shuangfeng 侯基
    Loudi 而界如今
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. from
    2. possessive particle
    3. whereupon
    4. accordingly

    Readings[edit]

    Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

    See also[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nae)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul):
      • Name (hangeul): 이에 (revised: ie, McCune-Reischauer: ie)
    1. then
    2. really, indeed
    3. as it turned out, after all
    4. namely

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]