Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: , , , , and
U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Mainland China)
2 strokes
Stroke order
Traditional Chinese and Japanese
乃-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠄕

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
乃-oracle.svg 乃-bronze.svg ACC-b07035.svg ACC-b07037.svg 乃-silk.svg 乃-slip.svg 乃-zhou.svg 乃-ancient.svg 乃-seal.svg 乃-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

From ancient 𠄎.

Etymology[edit]

“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"then; now"
Related to Tibetan (na, postposition following temporal causes) (Coblin, 1986).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
Note:
  • nai2 - “you, your”;
  • nai6 - "just", "then", "be".
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nai²³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nɑ̆iX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    noi5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nǎi nǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˁəʔ/
    English your then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9337
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nɯːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) you, your
    2. (literary) be
      失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
    3. (literary) then; hence
      Synonym: 於是于是 (yúshì)
    4. (literary) only then; not ... until
      Synonym: (cái)
    5. (literary) but
    6. (literary) surprisingly; unexpectedly
      Synonym: 竟然 (jìngrán)
    7. (Mainland China, Internet slang, cute-sounding) you (singular)
        ―  nǎiméng  ―  (cute-sounding variant of 你們) you (plural)
    8. (Shanghai) now
    Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. from
    2. possessive particle
    3. whereupon
    4. accordingly

    Readings[edit]

    Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

    See also[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 이에 (ie nae))

    1. then
    2. really, indeed
    3. as it turned out, after all
    4. namely

    References[edit]


    Old Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    (*nwoy-)

    1. to speak; to say
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Golden Light Sutra:
        [言]善男子五種法
        PWUTHYE-n nwoy-si-l SYEN.NAM.CO-ya WO.CYONG.PEP-ur UY[?]-a
        As for the Buddha, his [honored] sayings: "O good men! Rely on the Five Laws, and..."
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms. Bracketed terms were ignored when read.)

    Reconstruction notes[edit]

    The final phonogram of the logographic variants shows that the verb stem has a final *-i or *-y, while the entirely phonogramic form shows that the phonology of the word is overall similar to Middle Chinese */nʌi/. Thus it is believed to be the ancestor of the Middle and Modern Korean cranberry morpheme (nwoy), used in some verb stems relating to speech, and is reconstructed as *nwoy.

    This term is given as a native Korean equivalent of the Chinese verb in Korean-language interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Buddhist canon, made between the tenth and thirteenth centuries. Interpretive gugyeol encodes guidelines by which a Korean speaker could have read out a Classical Chinese text in its native Korean translation, much like Japanese kanbun. These glosses accordingly instruct the Korean reader to read out the Chinese verb "to speak" as , allowing us to understand the meaning of *nwoy.

    It is not attested outside compounds in Middle Korean sources.

    Descendants[edit]

    • Korean: 되뇌다 (doenoeda, to repeat the same thing)
    • Korean: 뇌까리다 (noekkarida, to say whatever comes to mind)

    References[edit]

    • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon), “<願往生歌>의 새로운 解讀 [A new reading of the Wonwangsaeng-ga]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 41, 2018, pages 5-27
    • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Taehaksa, 2009, →ISBN
    • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi), “구결자료의 어휘 [Vocabulary in the gugyeol sources]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 33, 2014, pages 23–61

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]