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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜廿山 (YTU), four-corner 38304, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1256, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38849
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1741, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3833, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9006

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋraɡ): semantic  ‎(movement) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ŋraɡ) – going in the opposite direction, contrary, disobedient.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋra-k/ŋ ‎(to meet; to encounter). Cognate with (OC *ŋaŋ, *ŋraŋs, “to receive, to welcome; to face, to go against”) and (OC *ŋɡraːɡ, “forehead”).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ni⁵¹/
Harbin /ni⁵³/
Tianjin /ni⁵³/
Jinan /ȵi⁴²/
/i⁴²/
Qingdao /ni⁴²/
Zhengzhou /i⁴²/
Xi'an /ni²¹/
Xining /mji²¹³/
Yinchuan /ni¹³/
Lanzhou /ȵi¹³/
Ürümqi /ȵi²¹³/
Wuhan /ni²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵie³¹/
Guiyang /ni²¹/
Kunming /ni³¹/
Nanjing /liʔ⁵/
Hefei /liəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /niəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /niʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /niəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ȵiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ni²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ȵi²⁴/
Xiangtan /ȵi²⁴/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /ŋiak̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jek̚²/
Nanning /nek̚²²/
/ŋek̚²²/
Hong Kong /jik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gik̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋiʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋek̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋek̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (115)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠiæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚiak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋiajk̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋiɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋrak/
English go against

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9474
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to greet; to meet; to welcome
  2. to accept
  3. to go against; to disobey
      ―  liú  ―  to go against the current
  4. to oppose; to resist
  5. opposite
      ―  xíng  ―  to go against the traffic
  6. in advance
  7. adverse; unfavourable
      ―  jìng  ―  adverse situations
  8. rebel; traitor

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. reverse, opposite, upside-down
  2. opposition, rebellion

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeok) (hangeul , revised yeok, McCune-Reischauer yŏk, Yale yek)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nghịch, nghếch, nghệch, nghạch, ngược)

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