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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(movement) + phonetic  – going in the opposite direction, contrary, disobedient.

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜廿山 (YTU), four-corner 38304, composition)

  1. rebellion
  2. betrayal
  3. traitor
  4. opposite, reverse

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1256, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38849
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1741, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3833, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9006

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ni⁵¹/
Harbin /ni⁵³/
Tianjin /ni⁵³/
Jinan /ȵi⁴²/
/i⁴²/
Qingdao /ni⁴²/
Zhengzhou /i⁴²/
Xi'an /ni²¹/
Xining /mji²¹³/
Yinchuan /ni¹³/
Lanzhou /ȵi¹³/
Ürümqi /ȵi²¹³/
Wuhan /ni²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵie³¹/
Guiyang /ni²¹/
Kunming /ni³¹/
Nanjing /liʔ⁵/
Hefei /liəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /niəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /niʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /niəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ȵiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ni²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ȵi²⁴/
Xiangtan /ȵi²⁴/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /ŋiak̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jek̚²/
Nanning /nek̚²²/
/ŋek̚²²/
Hong Kong /jik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gik̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋiʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋek̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋek̚³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (31)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɣiæk̚/ /ŋiɐk̚/ /ŋiɐk̚/ /ŋɯiak̚/ /ŋiajk̚/ /ŋĭɐk̚/ /ŋiak̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngjæk › /*ŋrak/ go against

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9474 0 /*ŋraɡ/

Noun[edit]

  1. (literary) opposite
  2. (literary) rebel; traitor

Verb[edit]

  1. (literary) disobey; rebel

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. reverse, opposite, upside-down
  2. opposition, rebellion

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeok) (hangeul , revised yeok, McCune-Reischauer yŏk, Yale yek)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nghịch, nghếch, nghệch, nghạch, ngược)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.