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U+9020, 造
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9020

[U+901F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9021]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 162, +7, 11 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 10 strokes in simplified Chinese and Japanese, cangjie input 卜竹土口 (YHGR), four-corner 34306, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1258, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38898
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1746, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3841, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9020

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *skʰuːɡs, *sɡuːʔ): semantic (to walk) + phonetic (OC *kuːɡs, *kuːɡ).

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • chǒ - vernacular;
    • chǒ͘ - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • zau5 - used in 造孽 (“pitiful; pitiable”).

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sɑu⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡sau⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡sɑu⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡sɔ²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡sɔ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sau³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰau⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sɔ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sɔ¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sɔ¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sɔ²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰau³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰau¹³/
    /t͡sau¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰao²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡sʰɔ²¹²/
    Nanjing /t͡sɔo⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    /t͡sɔ⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰau⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡sɔ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /zɔ²³/
    Suzhou /zæ³¹/
    Hangzhou /d͡zɔ¹³/
    Wenzhou /zɜ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɔ²²/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰau⁵⁵/ 建~
    /t͡sau¹¹/ ~孽
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰaɯ⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɑu²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰo⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sou²²/
    Nanning /t͡su²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sou²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰo²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰɔ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sau⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sau³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tau³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zou6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dzˁ]uʔ/
    English make

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3803
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɡuːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to make; to build; to manufacture
        ―  zàochuán  ―  to build a ship
      仿  ―  fǎngzào  ―  to produce something after a model; to copy
      /   ―  chuàngzào  ―  to create
      房子  ―  zào fángzǐ  ―  to build a house
      輿論 / 舆论  ―  zào yúlùn  ―  to manufacture public opinion
      手機 / 手机  ―  zào yī tái shǒujī  ―  to manufacture a mobile phone
    2. to make up; to fabricate
      假帳 / 假帐  ―  zào jiǎzhàng  ―  to cook the books
      /   ―  zàoyáo  ―  to fabricate stories
    3. (colloquial) to spend money without constraint
    4. (literary, obsolete) to start
    5. (literary, obsolete) to establish
    6. (dialectal) harvest of crops
        ―  zǎozào  ―  early crops
    7. (dialectal) Classifier for harvests.
      可以 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      jat1 nin4 ho2 ji5 sau1 saam1 zou6 mai5 [Jyutping]
      to be able to gather three harvests of rice a year
    8. (law) party concerned in the suit

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰawH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cou3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshawH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*(mə-)tsʰˁuʔ-s/
    English go to

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3799
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*skʰuːɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) to go to; to visit; to reach
      / 访  ―  zàofǎng  ―  to pay a visit; to call on
      登峰 / 登峰  ―  dēngfēngzào  ―  to reach great heights; to reach the peak of perfection
    2. (literary) attainments; achievements
      /   ―  zào  ―  attainments; achievements
    3. (literary) to train
        ―  shēnzào  ―  to pursue advanced studies
      之材  ―  zàozhīcái  ―  a promising talent deserving training
    4. (literary) to give a life
      之恩  ―  zàizàozhī'ēn  ―  great benevolence of saving one's life
    5. (literary) era

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in 新造 (xīnzào, “Xinzao, a town in Guangzhou”).

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Mandarin, slang) Contraction of 知道 (zhīdào).
      /   ―  zào ma?  ―  Didja know?

    Etymology 5[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 𢲵 (“(Sichuan) to stir; to flip over; to rummage”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of 𢲵.)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. create, make, physique, structure

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɑuX).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 지을 (jieul jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (to create; to make).
    2. Hanja form? of (physique; structure).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰɑuH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 이룰 (irul jo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (to achieve).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: tạo, xáo, xạo, tháo

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.