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U+65E9, 早
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65E9

[U+65E8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65EA]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
早-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 日十 (AJ), four-corner 60400, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 489, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13742
  • Dae Jaweon: page 850, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1483, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+65E9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
早-bronze-warring.svg 早-silk.svg 早-slip.svg 早-seal.svg 早-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*zuːʔ
*zuːʔ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (first) – when the sun first rises.

In some late bronze inscriptions, it was also written as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsuːʔ): semantic  (sun) + phonetic  (OC *ʔsuːʔ), with sometimes simplified as . In ancient texts, (OC *ʔsuːʔ) was often used instead.

Alternatively, it is also possible that was originally a pictograph of a particular type of acorn. The shells of these acorns would be used to make a dark-colored dye. This color indicated the darkness before sunrise and the symbol then took on the meaning of early or fast. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Etymology[edit]

Possible cognate found in Proto-Hmong-Mien *ntsi̯ouˣ (early), whence White Hmong ntxov and Iu Mien nziou (Baxter-Sagart, 2014; Schuessler, 2007), and Proto-Tai *ɟa:wᶜ (early morning), whence Thai เช้า (cháao) and ᦋᧁᧉ (tsaw2).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • cā - vernacular;
  • cō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chá - vernacular;
    • chái - vernacular (for certain words);
    • chó͘/chó - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Nə.tsˤuʔ/
    English early

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16546
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsuːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. early; in advance; soon
        ―  Wǒ xǐng dé hěn zǎo.  ―  I woke up early.
    2. long ago; for a long time
        ―  zǎo zǒu le.  ―  He left long ago.
    3. (early) morning
    4. good morning
      老師 / 老师  ―  Lǎoshī zǎo!  ―  Good morning, teacher!
    5. before; in the past time

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 早安 (“good morning”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 早安
    Mandarin Beijing 早安早上好
    Taiwan 早安
    Cantonese Guangzhou 早晨
    Hong Kong 早晨
    Shunde 早晨
    Foshan 早晨
    Zhongshan 早晨
    Dongguan 早晨
    Taishan 早晨
    Doumen 早晨
    Kaiping 早晨
    Hakka Meixian 恁早
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 恁早恁會早恁早萋
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 恁早
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 恁早恁會早恁早萋
    Dongshi (Dabu) 恁早恁早萋
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 恁早恁早萋
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠢕早堅早
    Min Nan Xiamen 𠢕早
    Quanzhou 𠢕早
    Zhangzhou 𠢕早
    Taipei 𠢕早
    Wu Shanghai 儂早

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    はや
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana はや, rōmaji haya)

    1. already, now

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jo)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (McCune–Reischauer: cho, Yale: co)
      • Name (hangeul): 일찍
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tảo, linh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.