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U+65E9, 早
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65E9

[U+65E8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65EA]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
早-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 日十 (AJ), four-corner 60400, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 489, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13742
  • Dae Jaweon: page 850, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1483, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+65E9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
早-bronze-warring.svg 早-silk.svg 早-slip.svg 早-seal.svg 早-bigseal.svg

Early bronze inscriptions: Pictogram (象形) – acorn. Original form of (OC *zuːʔ) (once also written as ). Borrowed for "morning" sense.

Late bronze inscriptions: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsuːʔ): semantic (sun) + phonetic (OC *ʔsuːʔ), with sometimes simplified as .

Small seal script: Ideogrammic compound (會意): (sun) + (first) – when the sun first rises.

In some ancient texts, (OC *ʔsuːʔ) was often used instead.

Etymology[edit]

Possible cognate found in Proto-Hmong-Mien *ntsi̯ouˣ (early), whence White Hmong ntxov and Iu Mien nziou (Baxter and Sagart, 2014; Schuessler, 2007), and Proto-Tai *ɟa:wᶜ (early morning), whence Thai เช้า (cháao) and ᦋᧁᧉ (tsaw2).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • cā - vernacular;
  • cō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chá - vernacular;
    • chái - vernacular (for certain words);
    • chó͘/chó - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zǎo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zou2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Nə.tsˁuʔ/
    English early

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16546
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsuːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. early; in advance; soon
        ―  Wǒ xǐng dé hěn zǎo.  ―  I woke up early.
      一點 [MSC, trad.]
      一点 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ néng bù néng zǎo yīdiǎn lái? [Pinyin]
      Can you be here a little earlier?
      請問今天一會兒 [MSC, trad.]
      请问今天一会儿 [MSC, simp.]
      Qǐngwèn, wǒ jīntiān zǎo zǒu yīhuìr xíng ma? [Pinyin]
      Please could I leave early today?
      Antonym: (chí)
    2. long ago; for a long time
        ―  zǎo zǒu le.  ―  He left long ago.
      變壓器已經 [MSC, trad.]
      变压器已经 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè ge biànyāqì yǐjīng shāo huǐ le, zǎo gāi chāi huàn yī ge xīn de le. [Pinyin]
      This transformer has burnt out. It should have been replaced a long time ago.
    3. (early) morning
      見到 [MSC, trad.]
      见到 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ jīn zǎo méi yǒu jiàndào tā. [Pinyin]
      I didn't see him this morning.
    4. good morning
      老師 / 老师  ―  Lǎoshī zǎo!  ―  Good morning, teacher!
    5. before; in the past time
      現在這麼匆忙幹嗎 [MSC, trad.]
      现在这么匆忙干吗 [MSC, simp.]
      Xiànzài zhème cōngmáng, nǐ zǎo gànmá qù le. [Pinyin]
      So now you are in a hurry. What were you doing before?
    6. (Hainanese) breakfast
    7. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    はや
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (はや) (haya

    1. already, now

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sɑuX). Recorded as Middle Korean 조〯 (Yale: cwo) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 일찍 (iljjik jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (early).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: tảo ((tử)(hạo)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: tảo[2][4][6], chảo[1], tảu

    1. Hán tự form of tảo (early; in advance).
    2. Hán tự form of tảo (morning).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]