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U+8349, 草
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8349

[U+8348]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+834A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿日十 (TAJ), four-corner 44406, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1030, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30945
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1489, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3203, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+8349

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
草-seal.svg 草-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*zuːʔ
*zuːʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰuːʔ): semantic  (grass; plant) + phonetic  (OC *ʔsuːʔ). Originally referred to , and later borrowed for the “grass” sense, replacing .

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-tswa-n (grass); cognate with Tibetan རྩྭ (rtswa, grass) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Alternatively, it may be related to (OC *sʰro, “hay”), from Austro-Asiatic; compare Mon ချဲ (grass; weeds; hay) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chháu - vernacular;
  • chhó/chhó͘ - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sʰɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /t͡sʰau²¹³/
    Tianjin /t͡sʰɑu¹³/
    Jinan /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xining /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /t͡sʰɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰau⁴²/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰao⁴²/
    Kunming /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /t͡sʰɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰɜ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɑu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰau³¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰo³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰu³⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰau³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰau²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cǎo
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cǎo cǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshawX › ‹ tshawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˤuʔ/ /*[tsʰ]ˤuʔ/
    English grass, plants rough, coarse

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16547
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰuːʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. grass; straw; thatch
    2. herbal grasses; herbs
    3. (by extension) any such green, leafy plant without any bark (plants, not trees)
    4. draft; sketch
    5. sloppy; hasty
    6. (calligraphy) Short for 草書草书 (cǎoshū, “cursive script (grass script)”).
    7. (slang, euphemistic) Alternative form of (cào, “fuck”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“black; soap; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • New Nelson: 5032
    • Halpern: 2263
    • Halpern Learners: 1450
    • Heisig: 224
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 3k6.13
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.

    The development of the fake, amateur senses is unclear.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くさ, rōmaji kusa)

    1. grass
       (くさ) ()
      kusa o karu
      to cut grass
      Synonyms: 芝生 (shibafu) (in reference to a lawn)
    2. a weed
    3. a herb
      Synonyms: ハーブ (hābu), 薬草 (yakusō) (medicinal), 香草 (kōsō) (cooking)
    4. a scout, a spy (from the way one would hide in the grass to observe enemy troops)
    5. (figuratively, slang, rare) pubic hair

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana くさ, rōmaji kusa-)

    1. a fake, a mimic, not the real thing
       (くさ)蜉蝣 (かげろう)
      kusakagerō
      a lacewing fly (literally, “fake or mimic dragonfly”, from the visual resemblance)
    2. amateur, small-time
       (くさ) () (きゅう) (くさ) (けい) ()
      kusayakyū, kusakeiba
      amateur or pick-up baseball, small-time horse-racing

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /sau//sɔː//soː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰɑuX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana そう, rōmaji , historical hiragana さう)

    1. grass
    2. a draft, a rough copy
    3. cursive, calligraphy in a running hand
    4. something unofficial, an informal abbreviation or knock-off
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From the resemblance of multiple repetitions of w (LOL) to grass: 笑い (warai, laugh), is shortened to w in Internet slang to convey laughter or amusement.

    Possibly influenced by the term くすくす (kusukusu), an adverb indicating stifled laughter.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くさ, rōmaji kusa)

    1. (Internet slang) "grass", in reference to the expression w (LOL); LOLs

    Phrase[edit]

    (hiragana くさ, rōmaji kusa)

    1. Short for 草生える (kusa haeru): (Internet slang) …it's hilarious
       (さば) ()ちて (くさ)
      saba ochite kusa
      lol the server's down
       () ()すぎて (くさ)
      heta-sugite kusa
      hilariously shitty
      4 (よっ) ()しかないのは (くさ)
      yokka shika nai no wa kusa
      I've got only 4 days left lol
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (cho)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: ch'o, Yale: cho)
      • Name (hangeul):
    1. grass

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thảo, tháu, xáo)

    1. grass
    2. straw
    3. thatch
    4. herbs

    References[edit]