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See also:
U+8349, 草
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8349

[U+8348]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+834A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order (Hong Kong)
10 strokes
Stroke order (Taiwan)
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 140, +6, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 9 strokes in simplified Chinese and Japanese, cangjie input 廿日十 (TAJ), four-corner 44406, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1030, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30945
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1489, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3203, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+8349

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sʰuːʔ) : semantic (grass; plant) + phonetic (OC *ʔsuːʔ). Originally referred to , and later borrowed for the “grass” sense, replacing .

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-tswa-n (grass); cognate with Tibetan རྩྭ (rtswa, grass) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Alternatively, it may be related to (OC *sʰro, “hay”), from Austroasiatic; compare Mon ချဲ (grass; weeds; hay) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chāu - vernacular;
  • chō̤ - literary.
  • Southern Min
  • Note:
    • chháu - vernacular;
    • chhó/chhó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • co2 - vernacular;
    • cao2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sʰɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /t͡sʰau²¹³/
    Tianjin /t͡sʰɑu¹³/
    Jinan /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xining /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /t͡sʰɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰau⁴²/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰao⁴²/
    Kunming /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /t͡sʰɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰɜ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɑu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰau³¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰo³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰu³⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /t͡sʰau³²/
    Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sʰau²¹/
    Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /sau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter tshawX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cǎo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cou2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cǎo cǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshawX › ‹ tshawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˁuʔ/ /*[tsʰ]ˁuʔ/
    English grass, plants rough, coarse

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16547
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰuːʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. herbaceous plant; herb; weed; wort; grass; forb
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      Cǎodì shàng yǒu yī tóu niú zài chī cǎo. [Pinyin]
      There is one cow eating grass on the lawn.
        ―  xiāngcǎo  ―  fragrant herb
        ―  hāocǎo  ―  mugwort
    2. Used in names of some woody plants
        ―  mǎngcǎo  ―  Illicium henryi and Illicium lanceolatum
        ―  cǎo  ―  Codariocalyx motorius
      醉魚醉鱼  ―  zuìyúcǎo  ―  Buddleja lindleyana
    3. straw
        ―  dàocǎo  ―  rice straw
        ―  cǎoxié  ―  straw sandals
    4. (Cantonese, slang) marijuana; cannabis; weed
      [Cantonese]  ―  deoi2 cou2 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke weed
    5. (dated) countryside; wilderness
        ―  cǎo  ―  wilderness
      為寇为寇  ―  luòcǎowéikòu  ―  to become a bandit in the countryside
    6. careless; rough; sloppy
        ―  cǎo  ―  hasty
        ―  cǎoshū  ―  cursive script
    7. common; ordinary
        ―  cǎomín  ―  common people
      金魚金鱼  ―  cǎojīnyú  ―  common goldfish
    8. (dialectal, chiefly of livestock or poultry) female
    9. draft; sketch
    10. to draft
        ―  cǎo  ―  to draft; to draw up (a plan)
    11. (calligraphy) Short for 草書草书 (cǎoshū, “cursive script (grass script)”).
        ―  kuángcǎo  ―  wild cursive
      1. cursive
    12. (chemistry) oxalic

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (そう) ()
    • Korean: 초(草) (cho)
    • Vietnamese: thảo ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: tháu (scrawling)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“black; acorn; etc.”).
    (This character is a variant form of ).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (slang, euphemistic, Internet slang) Alternative form of (fuck)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (kusa, LOL). See the Japanese entry for more information.

    As an interjection, this term is easily confused with the native “fuck” sense above. To distinguish between the two senses, 中國語中国语 (zhōngguóyǔ, “Chinese”) and 日本語日本语 (rìběnyǔ, “Japanese”) are usually put in parentheses following the term to specify which sense is intended.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (neologism, Internet slang) LOL
      中日雙語中日双语  ―  cǎo (zhōngrì shuāngyǔ)  ―  fuck lmao (literally, “ (in Chinese and Japanese)”)
    2. (neologism, Internet slang) hilarious
        ―  Zhè yě tài cǎo le ba.  ―  Isn't this a bit too hilarious?

    References[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (uncommon)

    From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kusa. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean (kkot, flower).

    The development of the fake, amateur senses is unclear.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. grass
      Synonym: (in reference to a lawn) 芝生 (shibafu)
      (くさ)()
      kusa o karu
      to cut grass
    2. a weed
    3. a herb
      Synonyms: ハーブ (hābu), (medicinal) 薬草 (yakusō), (cooking) 香草 (kōsō)
    4. a scout, a spy (from the way one would hide in the grass to observe enemy troops)
    5. (figurative, slang, rare) pubic hair

    Prefix[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa-

    1. a fake, a mimic, not the real thing
      (くさ)蜉蝣(かげろう)
      kusakagerō
      a lacewing fly (literally, “fake or mimic dragonfly”, from the visual resemblance)
    2. amateur, small-time
      (くさ)()(きゅう)(くさ)(けい)()
      kusayakyū, kusakeiba
      amateur or pick-up baseball, small-time horse-racing

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /sau//sɔː//soː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshawX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (そう) (さう (sau)?

    1. grass
    2. a draft, a rough copy
    3. cursive, calligraphy in a running hand
    4. something unofficial, an informal abbreviation or knock-off
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From the resemblance of multiple repetitions of w (LOL) to grass: wwwwwwwww.

    Possibly influenced by the term くすくす (kusukusu), an adverb indicating stifled laughter. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. (Internet slang) "grass", in reference to the expression w (LOL); LOLs

    Phrase[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. Ellipsis of 草生える (kusa haeru, literally grass grows): (Internet slang) … it's hilarious
      Synonyms: 草生える (kusa haeru), 笑える (waraeru)
      (さば)()ちてて(くさ)
      saba ochitete kusa
      lol the server's down
      下手(へた)すぎて(くさ)
      heta-sugite kusa
      hilariously shitty
      4日(よっか)しかないのは(くさ)
      yokka shika nai no wa kusa
      only 4 days left haha
    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 草・艸”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (pul cho))

    1. Hanja form? of (grass).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: thảo, tháu, xáo

    1. grass
    2. straw
    3. thatch
    4. herbs

    References[edit]