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See also:
U+8349, 草
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8349

[U+8348]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+834A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order (Hong Kong)
10 strokes
Stroke order (Taiwan)
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 140, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿日十 (TAJ), four-corner 44406, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1030, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30945
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1489, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3203, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+8349

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
草-seal.svg 草-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰuːʔ): semantic  (grass; plant) + phonetic  (OC *ʔsuːʔ). Originally referred to , and later borrowed for the “grass” sense, replacing .

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-tswa-n (grass); cognate with Tibetan རྩྭ (rtswa, grass) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Alternatively, it may be related to (OC *sʰro, “hay”), from Austroasiatic; compare Mon ချဲ (grass; weeds; hay) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chāu - vernacular;
  • chō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chháu - vernacular;
    • chhó/chhó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • co2 - vernacular;
    • cao2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sʰɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /t͡sʰau²¹³/
    Tianjin /t͡sʰɑu¹³/
    Jinan /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Xining /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /t͡sʰɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰau⁴²/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰao⁴²/
    Kunming /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /t͡sʰɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰɜ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɑu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰau³¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰo³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰu³⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰou³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰau³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰau²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    /t͡sʰo⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cǎo cǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshawX › ‹ tshawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˁuʔ/ /*[tsʰ]ˁuʔ/
    English grass, plants rough, coarse

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16547
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰuːʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. grass; straw; thatch
    2. herbal grasses; herbs
    3. (by extension) any such green, leafy plant without any bark (plants, not trees)
    4. draft; sketch
    5. sloppy; hasty
    6. (calligraphy) Short for 草書草书 (cǎoshū, “cursive script (grass script)”).
      1. cursive
    7. (chemistry) oxalic

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (そう) ()
    • Korean: (, cho)
    • Vietnamese: thảo ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: tháu (scrawling)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“black; acorn; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (slang, euphemistic, Internet slang) Alternative form of (cào, “fuck”).

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (kusa, LOL). See the Japanese entry for more information.

    As an interjection, this term is easily confused with the native “fuck” sense above. To distinguish between the two senses, 中國語中国语 (zhōngguóyǔ, “Chinese”) and 日本語日本语 (rìběnyǔ, “Japanese”) are usually put in parentheses following the term to specify which sense is intended.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (neologism, Internet slang) LOL
      中日雙語 / 中日双语  ―  cǎo (zhōngrì shuāngyǔ)  ―  fuck lmao

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • New Nelson: 5032
    • Halpern: 2263
    • Halpern Learners: 1450
    • Heisig: 224
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 3k6.13
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kusa. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.

    The development of the fake, amateur senses is unclear.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. grass
      (くさ)()
      kusa o karu
      to cut grass
      Synonym: 芝生 (shibafu) (in reference to a lawn)
    2. a weed
    3. a herb
      Synonyms: ハーブ (hābu), 薬草 (yakusō) (medicinal), 香草 (kōsō) (cooking)
    4. a scout, a spy (from the way one would hide in the grass to observe enemy troops)
    5. (figuratively, slang, rare) pubic hair

    Prefix[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa-

    1. a fake, a mimic, not the real thing
      (くさ)蜉蝣(かげろう)
      kusakagerō
      a lacewing fly (literally, “fake or mimic dragonfly”, from the visual resemblance)
    2. amateur, small-time
      (くさ)()(きゅう)(くさ)(けい)()
      kusayakyū, kusakeiba
      amateur or pick-up baseball, small-time horse-racing

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /sau//sɔː//soː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰɑuX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (そう) ( (historical kana さう)

    1. grass
    2. a draft, a rough copy
    3. cursive, calligraphy in a running hand
    4. something unofficial, an informal abbreviation or knock-off
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From the resemblance of multiple repetitions of w (LOL) to grass: wwwwwwwww.

    Possibly influenced by the term くすくす (kusukusu), an adverb indicating stifled laughter. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. (Internet slang) "grass", in reference to the expression w (LOL); LOLs

    Phrase[edit]

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. Short for 草生える (kusa haeru): (Internet slang) … it's hilarious
      Synonyms: 草生える (kusa haeru), 笑える (waraeru)
      (さば)()ちて(くさ)
      saba ochite kusa
      lol the server's down
      下手(へた)すぎて(くさ)
      heta-sugite kusa
      hilariously shitty
      4日(よっか)しかないのは(くさ)
      yokka shika nai no wa kusa
      I've got only 4 days left lol
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (pul cho))

    1. Hanja form? of (grass).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thảo, tháu, xáo)

    1. grass
    2. straw
    3. thatch
    4. herbs

    References[edit]