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See also:
U+6709, 有
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6709

[U+6708]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+670A]
Emoji u1f236.svg
🈶 U+1F236, 🈶
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6709
🈵
[U+1F235]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈷
[U+1F237]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
有-order.gif
Stroke order (Japan)
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 74, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大月 (KB), four-corner 40227, composition𠂇)

Usage notes[edit]

Despite the technically-correct radical being (meat) as described in this entry’s glyph origin section, is associated with the radical (moon) in dictionaries for historical reasons and is likewise written as if it contained the radical, i.e. it has instead of inside of .

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 504, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14332
  • Dae Jaweon: page 880, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2041, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6709

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
有-oracle.svg 有-bronze.svg 有-silk.svg 有-seal.svg 有-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kɯːʔ
*qʰɯːʔ
*qʰʷɯs
*ɢʷɯʔ, *qʷɯ
*ɢʷɯʔ
*ɢʷɯʔ
*ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs, *ɡʷɯ
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*ɢʷɯs
*qʰʷɯːʔ
*qʰʷɯːʔ, *ɡʷɯː
*ɡʷɯː
*ɢraːw, *ɢʷɯːʔ
*ɢʷɯʔ
*ɢʷɯʔ
*ɢʷɯʔ
*qʷɯ
*qʷɯ
*ɡʷɯ

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷɯs, hand) + semantic  (meat) – a hand holding meat, hence “in possession of”. The hand shape has been significantly abstracted; compare (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs).

Alternatively, the graph was perhaps originally intended for the word (OC *qʰɯːʔ, “minced pickled meat”), which also has the (OC *ɢʷɯs) element as phonetic.

Shuowen Jiezi and other ancient sources have erroneously analyzed the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷɯs) + semantic  (moon). Shuowen Jiezi defines as "不宜有也" ("[to have something that] not should be had"), citing the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋傳): "日月有食之" ("There are solar and lunar eclipses"). As eclipses were not auspicious to the Chinese, they were "something that should not be happening". The component alludes to the inauspicious lunar eclipse.

Etymology[edit]

Possibly Sino-Tibetan. Compare Tibetan ཡོད (yod, to be; to have). Related to:

  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to offer, to sacrifice”) [causative, i.e. “to cause to have”]
  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “again”) [adverbial]
  • (OC *ɡʷɯːɡ, “some; or”) [indefinite]

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ô - vernacular;
  • īu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ū/ǔ - vernacular;
    • iú - literary.
    Note: iu2 - prefix.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
    English have, exist

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 15595
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷɯʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to have; to possess (when a subject is present)
      Antonyms: ()
      /   ―  yǒu liǎng liàng chē.  ―  I have two cars.
    2. there is; to exist (when a subject is absent)
        ―  Yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There are a lot of people.
      這兒 / 这儿  ―  Zhèr yǒu shū ma?  ―  Are there any books here?
    3. (euphemistic) to be pregnant with a child
    4. abundant; affluent
    5. many; much; (of time) long; (of age) old
    6. some (indefinite pronoun)
    7. (literary or dialectal) Placed before a verb to emphasize that the action has been done.
      古語 / 古语  ―  gǔyǔ yǒu yún  ―  as the saying goes (lit. the old saying has said)
    8. A surname​.
    9. A meaningless prefix.
        ―  yǒuxià  ―  China
    Usage notes[edit]
    • In Mandarin, is the only verb not negated with (). It is negated with (méi).
    /   ―  wǒ méiyǒu qián  ―  I don't have any money

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (yòu, “again”).
    2. Alternative form of (yòu, “and; with a remainder of (when dividing an integer by ten)”).

    Japanese[edit]

    Stroke order
    (Japan)
    有-jorder.gif

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. exist
    2. get to exist; appear
    3. keep; maintain
    4. existence; belonging
    5. someone did certain thing
    6. possess
    7. have
    8. happen
    9. occur
    10. approximately

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana なお, rōmaji Nao)

    1. A female given name

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 있을 (isseul yu))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hữu, hỡi, hơi, nhất)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.