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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
有-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 74 +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大月 (KB), four-corner 40227, composition𠂇)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 504, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14332
  • Dae Jaweon: page 880, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2041, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6709

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
有-oracle.svg 有-bronze.svg 有-bigseal.svg 有-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  ‎(OC *ɢʷɯs, hand) + semantic  ‎(meat) – a hand holding meat, hence “in possession of”. is both a phonetic and semantic component. The hand shape has been significantly abstracted; compare (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs).

Alternatively, the graph was perhaps originally intended for the word (OC *qʰɯːʔ, “minced pickled meat”), which also has the (OC *ɢʷɯs) element as phonetic.

Shuowen Jiezi and other ancient sources have erroneously analyzed the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  ‎(OC *ɢʷɯs) + semantic  ‎(moon). Shuowen Jiezi defines as "不宜有也" ("[to have something that] not should be had"), citing the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋傳): "日月有食之" ("There are solar and lunar eclipses"). As eclipses were not auspicious to the Chinese, they were "something that should not be happening". The component alludes to the inauspicious lunar eclipse.

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly Sino-Tibetan. Compare Tibetan ཡོད་པ ‎(yod pa, to be; to have). Related to:

  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to offer, to sacrifice”) [causative, i.e. “to cause to have”]
  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “again”) [adverbial]
  • (OC *ɡʷɯːɡ, “some; or”) [indefinite]

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (35)
Final: (136)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yǒu
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɨuX/ /ɦiuX/ /ɣiəuX/ /ɦuwX/ /ɣiuX/ /ɣĭəuX/ /i̯ə̯uX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
yǒu ‹ hjuwX › /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/ have, exist

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15595 0 /*ɢʷɯʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to have; to possess (when a subject is present)
    Antonyms: ()
    /   ―  yǒu liǎng liàng chē.  ―  I have two cars.
  2. there is; to exist (when a subject is absent)
      ―  Yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There are a lot of people.
    這兒 / 这儿  ―  Zhèr yǒu shū ma?  ―  Are there any books here?
  3. (euphemistic) to be pregnant with a child
  4. abundant; affluent
  5. many; much; (of time) long; (of age) old
  6. some (indefinite pronoun)
  7. A surname​.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In Mandarin, is the only verb not negated with (). It is negated with (méi).
/   ―  wǒ méiyǒu qián  ―  I don't have any money

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (yòu, “again”).
  2. Alternative form of (yòu, “and; with a remainder of (when dividing an integer by ten)”).

Japanese[edit]

Japanese
stroke order
有-jorder.gif

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. exist
  2. get to exist; appear
  3. keep; maintain
  4. existence; belonging
  5. someone did certain thing
  6. possess
  7. have
  8. happen
  9. occur
  10. approximately

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なお, romaji Nao)

  1. A female given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yu)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: yu, McCune-Reischauer: yu, Yale: yu)
  • Name (hangeul): 있다 (Itta)()
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hữu, hỡi, hơi, nhất)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.