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See also: , , and 𡕒

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
年-bw.png
Stroke order
年-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 51 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

The older form of , , is a combination of , which means grain or rice and the phonetic element (qiān), which indicates extension. The meaning went from person wading through crops in harvesting to harvest and then to year because of the harvest after a long cycle.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nian³⁵/
Harbin /nian²⁴/
Tianjin /nian⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiã⁴²/
Qingdao /niã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nian⁴²/
Xi'an /niã²⁴/
Xining /ȵiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /nian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
Guiyang /nian²¹/
Kunming /niɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /lien²⁴/
Hefei /liĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /nie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nin²¹/
Nanning /nin²¹/
Hong Kong /nin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lian³⁵/
/ni³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nĩ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nin³¹/
/hi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nen/
Pan
Wuyun
/nen/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛn/
Li
Rong
/nen/
Wang
Li
/nien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nián
Middle
Chinese
‹ nen ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.nˤi[ŋ]/
English harvest; year

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9482
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*niːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. year
  2. harvest
  3. annual
  4. age
  5. period of life
  6. period (in history)
  7. New Year
  8. things for the New Year
  9. Classifier for years.
  10. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ねん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(nen, year). Compare modern Mandarin reading nián, Hakka nyên, Cantonese nin4.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. years

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ねん, romaji nen)

  1. a year
     (ねん)一度 (いちど)
    nen ni ichido
    once a year

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. a grade, a school year
     (かれ)中学2 (ちゅうがくに) (ねん)だ。
    Kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
    He's in the second grade in junior high school.
  2. a year
    2008 (にせんはち) (ねん) (はし)建設 (けんせつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
    Ni sen hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shihajimeru yō da.
    They seem to be going to start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
とし
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/to2si//tosi//toɕi/

From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とし, romaji toshi)

  1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
  2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
  3. a year
  4. age

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
とせ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/to2se//tose/

From Old Japanese.[2] Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana とせ, romaji -tose)

  1. (obsolete) used to count years
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 880), text [1]:
      阿麻社迦留 (あまざかる)比奈尓伊都 (ひなにいつ)'等世 (とせ)周麻比都都 (すまひつつ)美夜故能提夫利 (みやこのてぶり)和周良延尓家利 (わすらえにけり)
      Amazakaru, hina ni itsu tose, sumahitsutsu, miyako no teburi, wasuraenikeri
      While living five years in the far-remote countryside, I wound up forgetting the manners of the capital

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nyeon, yeon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): 년, 연 (revised: nyeon, yeon, McCune-Reischauer: nyŏn, yŏn, Yale: nyen, nyen)
  • Name (hangeul): 해, 해 (revised: hae, hae, McCune-Reischauer: hae, hae, Yale: hay, hay)
  1. year

Counter[edit]

‎(nyeon) ‎(hangeul )

  1. year

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nên, năm, niên)

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