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U+5E74, 年
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E74

[U+5E73]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E75]
U+F98E, 年
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F98E

[U+F98D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F98F]
See also: , , and 𡕒

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
年-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 51 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
年-oracle.svg 年-bronze.svg 年-silk.svg 年-bigseal.svg 年-seal.svg

In the oracle bone script and early bronze inscriptions, it was originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *niːŋ): semantic  (wheat; grain) + phonetic  (OC *njin, person) – a person carrying wheat on his back – harvest.

In bronze inscriptions after the Western Zhou period, a stroke was often added to to give (OC *sn̥ʰiːn), which still acted as a phonetic component, and this form was inherited by later scripts. The current form is simplified from .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nî - vernacular;
  • liân - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nian³⁵/
Harbin /nian²⁴/
Tianjin /nian⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiã⁴²/
Qingdao /niã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nian⁴²/
Xi'an /niã²⁴/
Xining /ȵiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /nian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
Guiyang /nian²¹/
Kunming /niɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /lien²⁴/
Hefei /liĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /nie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nin²¹/
Nanning /nin²¹/
Hong Kong /nin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lian³⁵/
/ni³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nĩ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nin³¹/
/hi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nen/
Pan
Wuyun
/nen/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛn/
Li
Rong
/nen/
Wang
Li
/nien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nián
Middle
Chinese
‹ nen ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.nˤi[ŋ]/
English harvest; year

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9482
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*niːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. year (in generic contexts)
    2012  ―  2012 nián  ―  the year of 2012
    / [Cantonese]  ―  loeng5 nin4 cin4 [Jyutping]  ―  two years ago
  2. harvest
  3. annual
  4. age
  5. period of life
      ―  tóngnián  ―  childhood
  6. period (in history)
  7. New Year
    /   ―  guònián  ―  to pass the New Year
  8. things for the New Year
  9. Classifier for years.
  10. A surname​.

Usage note[edit]

  • Although is the generic term for year, years of age are typically expressed in (suì), a separate system based on the duodecennial orbital period of Jupiter. Ages in (suì) are traditionally reckoned using the Chinese lunar calendar, beginning with 1 at the moment of birth and increasing not during birthdays but at the Chinese New Year.

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ねん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nen, year). Compare modern Mandarin reading nián, Hakka ngièn, Cantonese nin4.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

  1. years

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji nen)

  1. a year
     (ねん)一度 (いちど)
    nen ni ichido
    once a year

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

  1. a grade, a school year
     (かれ)中学2 (ちゅうがくに) (ねん)だ。
    Kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
    He's in the second grade in junior high school.
  2. a year
    2008 (にせんはち) (ねん) (はし)建設 (けんせつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
    Nisen-hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shi hajimeru yō da.
    It seems like they will start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
とし
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/to2si/ invalid IPA characters (2)/tosi//toɕi/

From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とし, rōmaji toshi)

  1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
  2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
  3. a year
  4. age

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
とせ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/to2se/ invalid IPA characters (2)/tose/

From Old Japanese.[2] Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana とせ, rōmaji -tose)

  1. (obsolete) used to count years
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 880), text [1]:
      阿麻社迦留 (あまざかる)比奈尓伊都 (ひなにいつ)等世 (とせ)周麻比都都 (すまひつつ)美夜故能提夫利 (みやこのてぶり)和周良延尓家利 (わすらえにけり)
      Amazakaru, hina ni itsu tose, sumahitsutsu, miyako no teburi, wasuraenikeri
      While living five years in the far-remote countryside, I wound up forgetting the manners of the capital

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nyeon>yeon)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): > (revised: nyeon>yeon)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: hae)
  1. year

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nên, năm, niên)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.