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See also: , , and 𡕒

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
年-order.gif
Stroke order
年-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

The older form of 年, , is a combination of , which means grain or rice and the phonetic element , which indicates extension. The meaning went from person wading through crops in harvesting to harvest and then to year because of the harvest after a long cycle.

Han character[edit]

(radical 51 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500)

  1. year
  2. new year
  3. person's age

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Jyutping nin4, Yale nin4)


Hakka[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(POJ nyên (nyen5), Hagfa Pinyim ngian2)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sinitic .

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. years

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. a grade, a school year
     (かれ)中学2 (ちゅうがくに) (ねん)だ。
    kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
    He's in the second grade in junior high school.
  2. a year
    2008 (にせんはち) (ねん) (はし)建設 (けんせつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
    ni sen hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shihajimeru yō da.
    They seem to be going to start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

Etymology 2[edit]

/to2si/ > /tosi/

From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とし, romaji toshi)

  1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
  2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
  3. a year
  4. age

Etymology 3[edit]

/to2se/ > /tose/

From Old Japanese. Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana とせ, romaji -tose)

  1. used in counting years; years

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nyeon, yeon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): 년, 연 (revised: nyeon, yeon, McCune-Reischauer: nyŏn, yŏn, Yale: nyen, nyen)
  • Name (hangeul): 해, 해 (revised: hae, hae, McCune-Reischauer: hae, hae, Yale: hay, hay)
  1. year

Counter[edit]

(nyeon) (hangeul )

  1. year

Compounds[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Pinyin nián (nian2), Wade-Giles nien2)

Compounds[edit]


Middle Chinese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(*nen)


Min Nan[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(TLPA liân (lian5), nî (ni5))

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(niên, nên, năm)