period

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English periode, from Middle French periode, from Medieval Latin periodus, from Ancient Greek περίοδος (períodos, circuit, period of time, path around), from περί- (perí-, around) + ὁδός (hodós, way). Displaced native Middle English tide (interval, period, season), from Old English tīd (time, period, season), Middle English elde (age, period), from Old English ieldu (age, period of time).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈpɪə.ri.əd/, IPA(key): /ˈpɪə.rɪ.əd/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈpɪr.i.əd/, IPA(key): /ˈpɪr.ɪ.əd/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

period (plural periods)

  1. A length of time. [from 17th c.]
    There was a period of confusion following the announcement.
    You'll be on probation for a six-month period.
  2. A period of time in history seen as a single coherent entity; an epoch, era. [from 16th c.]
    Food rationing continued in the post-war period.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London.
  3. (now chiefly Canada, US) The punctuation mark “.” (indicating the ending of a sentence or marking an abbreviation).
    • 2002, Zadie Smith, The Autograph Man, Penguin Books (2003), page 299:
      ‘You know, a period? The black spot at the end of a sentence — what do you call them over there?’
  4. (figuratively) An decisive end to something; a stop.
    • 1887, H. Rider Haggard, She: A History of Adventure[1]:
      My sufferings, physical and mental, are more than I can bear, and when such small arrangements as I have to make for your future well-being are completed it is my intention to put a period to them.
  5. The length of time during which the same characteristics of a periodic phenomenon recur, such as the repetition of a wave or the rotation of a planet. [from 17th c.]
  6. Female menstruation. [from 18th c.]
    When she is on her period, she prefers not to go swimming.
  7. A section of an artist's, writer's (etc.) career distinguished by a given quality, preoccupation etc. [from 19th c.]
    This is one of the last paintings Picasso created during his Blue Period.
  8. Each of the divisions into which a school day is split, allocated to a given subject or activity. [from 19th c.]
    I have math class in second period.
  9. (sports, chiefly ice hockey) Each of the intervals, typically three, of which a game is divided. [from 19th c.]
    Gretzky scored in the last minute of the second period.
  10. (sports, chiefly ice hockey) One or more additional intervals to decide a tied game, an overtime period.
    They won in the first overtime period.
  11. (obsolete, medicine) The length of time for a disease to run its course. [15th-19th c.]
  12. An end or conclusion; the final point of a process etc. [from 16th c.]
  13. (rhetoric) A complete sentence, especially one expressing a single thought or making a balanced, rhythmic whole. [from 16th c.]
    • 1641, Ben Jonson, Timber
      Periods are beautiful when they are not too long.
    • 1644, John Milton, Aeropagitica:
      that such iron moulds as these shall have autority to knaw out the choicest periods of exquisitest books, and to commit such a treacherous fraud against the orphan remainders of worthiest men after death, the more sorrow will belong to that haples race of men, whose misfortune it is to have understanding.
    • 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Penguin 2004, p. 118:
      In declamatory periods Dr Fordyce spins out Rousseau's eloquence […].
    • 1853, Charles Dickens, Bleak House, ch 1:
      A very superior gentleman, Mr. Kenge. Truly eloquent indeed. Some of his periods quite majestic!
    • 1926, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Land of Mist[2]:
      He writhed for twenty minutes under the flowery and eulogistic periods of the president, and rose himself in the state of confused indignation which the Briton feels when he is publicly approved.
  14. (obsolete) A specific moment during a given process; a point, a stage. [17th-19th c.]
    • 1720, Alexander Pope, translating Homer, Iliad, Book IV (note 125):
      The Death of Patroclus was the most eminent Period; and consequently the most proper Time for such Games.
  15. (chemistry) A row in the periodic table of the elements. [from 19th c.]
  16. (geology) A subdivision of an era, typically lasting from tens to hundreds of millions of years, see Appendix: Geologic timescale.
    These fossils are from the Jurassic period.
  17. (genetics) A Drosophila gene, the gene product of which is involved in regulation of the circadian rhythm.
  18. (music) Two phrases (an antecedent and a consequent phrase).
  19. (mathematics) The length of an interval over which a periodic function, periodic sequence or repeating decimal repeats; often the least such length.
  20. (archaic) End point, conclusion.
    • 1590, Robert Greene, Greenes Mourning Garment, London: Thomas Newman, “The Shepheards Tale,” p. 17,[4]
      As thus all gazed on hir, so she glaunced hir lookes on all, surueying them as curiously, as they noted hir exactly, but at last she set downe her period on the face of Alexis []
    • c. 1590, William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 2, Act III, Scene 1,[5]
      And if my death might make this island happy,
      And prove the period of their tyranny,
      I would expend it with all willingness:
    • 1629, John Beaumont, “A Description of Love” in Bosworth-field with a Taste of the Variety of Other Poems, London: Henry Seile, p. 100,[6]
      When Loue thus in his Center ends,
      Desire and Hope, his inward friends
      Are shaken off: while Doubt and Griefe,
      The weakest giuers of reliefe,
      Stand in his councell as the chiefe:
      And now he to his period brought,
      From Loue becomes some other thought.
    • 1651, William Cartwright, The Ordinary, London: Humphrey Moseley, Act III, Scene 5, p. 51,[7]
      Set up an hour-glasse; hee’l go on untill
      The last sand make his Period.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

  • (length of time of recurrence of a periodic phenomenon): frequency

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adjective[edit]

period (not comparable)

  1. Designating anything from a given historical era. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
    a period car
    a period TV commercial
  2. Evoking, or appropriate for, a particular historical period, especially through the use of elaborate costumes and scenery.
    • 2004, Mark Singer, Somewhere in America, Houghton Mifflin, page 70:
      As the guests arrived — there were about a hundred, a majority in period attire — I began to feel out of place in my beige summer suit, white shirt, and red necktie. Then I got over it. I certainly didn't suffer from Confederate-uniform envy.

Interjection[edit]

period

  1. (chiefly Canada, US) That's final; that's the end of the matter (analogous to a period ending a sentence); end of story
    I know you don't want to go to the dentist, but your teeth need to be checked, period!

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Punctuation

Further reading[edit]

Verb[edit]

period (third-person singular simple present periods, present participle perioding, simple past and past participle perioded)

  1. (obsolete, intransitive) To come to a period; to conclude.
    • 1623, Owen Feltham, Resolves: Divine, Moral, Political
      For you may period upon this, that where there is the most pity for others, there is the greatest misery in the party pitied.
  2. (obsolete, transitive, rare) To put an end to.

Anagrams[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin periodus, from Ancient Greek περίοδος (períodos).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /perǐod/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧ri‧od

Noun[edit]

perìod m (Cyrillic spelling перѝод)

  1. period (of time)

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • period” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

period c

  1. a period, a limited amount of time
  2. (ice hockey, floorball) period

Declension[edit]

Declension of period 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative period perioden perioder perioderna
Genitive periods periodens perioders periodernas

Related terms[edit]