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From Sanskrit काल ‎(kāla).


काल ‎(kālm

  1. era, epoch, age, period


Etymology 1[edit]


काल ‎(kāla)

  1. black, of a dark colour, dark-blue


काल ‎(kālam

  1. A black or dark-blue colour
  2. The black part of the eye
  3. An Indian cuckoo
  4. The poisonous serpent Coluber नाग ‎(nāga) (= कालसर्प ‎(kālasarpa))
  5. (botany) Cassia sophora
  6. A red kind of Plumbago, probably Plumbago indica
  7. Resin of the plant Shorea robusta.
  8. The planet Saturn.
  9. name of Shiva
  10. name of Rudra
  11. name of a son of Hrada
  12. name of the prince Kāla-yavana
  13. name of a brother of king Prasena-jit
  14. name of a future Buddha
  15. name of an author of mantras (= अश्वघोष ‎(aśva-ghoṣa))
  16. name of a नागराज ‎(nāga-rāja)
  17. name of a rakshasa
  18. name of an enemy of shiva
  19. name of a mountain
  20. (Jainism) Of one of the nine treasures
  21. A mystical name of the letter 'm'
  22. The fruit of the काला ‎(kālā) g. हरीतक्यादि ‎(harītaky-ādi)
  23. name of a shakti
  24. name of a daughter of Daksha (the mother of the Kāleyas or Kālakeyas, a family of asuras)
  25. name of Durga


काल ‎(kālan

  1. a black kind of agarwood from Agallochum (now Aquilaria)
  2. a kind of perfume (कक्कोलक ‎(kakkolaka))
  3. iron

Etymology 2[edit]

From the root √kal ‎(√kal, to calculate or enumerate).


काल ‎(kālam

  1. a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time (in general)
  2. the proper time or season for (+genitive, dative, locative, in compound, infinitive, or subjunctive with यद् ‎(yad)
    • RV 10.42.9b
      उत परहामतिदीव्या जयाति कर्तं यच्छ्वघ्नी विचिनोतिकाले |
      यो देवकामो न धना रुणद्धि समित तं रायास्र्जति सवधावान ||
      uta prahāmatidīvyā jayāti kṛtaṃ yacchvaghnī vicinotikāle |
      yo devakāmo na dhanā ruṇaddhi samit taṃ rāyāsṛjati svadhāvān ||
      Yea, by superior play he wins advantage, when he, a gambler, piles his gains in season.
      Celestial-natured, he o’erwhelms with riches the devotee who keeps not back his treasure.
    kālaḥ prasthānasya or prasthānāya or prasthānetime for departure
    kriyā-kālatime for action
    nā-yaṃ kālo vilambitumthis is not the time to delay
    kālo yad bhuñjīta bhavānit is time for you to eat
  3. occasion, circumstance
  4. season
  5. meal-time (twice a day)
    ubhau kālauin the morning and in the evening
    ṣaṣṭhe kālein the evening of the third day
    ṣaṣṭhā-nna-kālaone who eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who passes five meals without eating and has no meal till the evening of the third day; or without अन्न ‎(anna):
    caturtha-kālamat the fourth meal-time, i.e. at the evening of the second day
  6. hour, hence:
    ṣaṣṭhe kāle 'hnaḥat the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon
  7. a period of time, time of the world (= युग ‎(yuga))
  8. measure of time, prosody
  9. a section, part
  10. the end
  11. death by age
  12. time (as leading to events, the causes of which are imperceptible to the mind of man), destiny, fate
  13. time (as destroying all things), death, time of death (often personified and represented with the attributes of Yama, regent of the dead, or even identified with him: hence
    kālam-√i or kālaṃ-√kṛto die; kāla in this sense is frequently connected with अन्तक ‎(antaka), मृत्यु ‎(mṛtyu) e.g.
    abhy-adhāvata prajāḥ kāla ivā-ntakaḥhe attacked the people like Time the destroyer; compare कालान्तक ‎(kālā*ntaka)
  14. 'kāla personified is also a देवर्षि ‎(devarṣi) in Indra's court, and a son of Dhruva