काल

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See also: काले

Hindi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /kɑːl/, [käːl̪]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit काल (kālá).

Noun[edit]

काल (kālm (Urdu spelling کال‎)

  1. time (as a concept)
  2. era, epoch, age, period
    • 2020 February 11, विनीत कुमार, “आज का पंचांग: राहु काल और शुभ मुहूर्त का आज क्या है समय, पढ़ें 11 फरवरी का पंचांग”, in Lokmat News Hindi[1]:
      देश की राजधानी नई दिल्ली में राहु काल दोपहर बाद 03.22 बजे से शुरू होगा और ये 04.45 बजे तक रहेगा।
      deś kī rājdhānī naī dillī mẽ rāhu kāl dophar bād 03.22 baje se śurū hogā aur ye 04.45 baje tak rahegā.
      In New Delhi, the nation's capital, the Rahu period [an astrologically inauspicious time] will begin at 3:22 in the afternoon and it will remain until 4:45.
  3. (Hinduism) death (personified as Yama)
    • 2020 February 12, “जेल में बंद पुत्र से मिलकर लौट रही मां व भाई काल के गाल में समाए”, in Dainik Jagran[2]:
      [] तभी रास्ते में काल बन कर आई बस ने इनकी बाइक में पीछे से धक्का मार दिया, जिससे दोनों की मौत घटनास्थल पर हो गई।
      [] tabhī rāste mẽ kāl ban kar āī bas ne inkī bāik mẽ pīche se dhakkā mār diyā, jisse donõ kī maut ghaṭnāsthal par ho gaī.
      [] and just then a bus arrived in the form of Death and rammed their bike from behind, due to which the deaths of both occurred at the site of the accident.
  4. (grammar) tense
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀅𑀕𑀸𑀮 (agāla), from Sanskrit अकाल (akāla, bad time).

Noun[edit]

काल (kālm (Urdu spelling کال‎)

  1. famine; bad times
Declension[edit]

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

काल m

  1. Devanagari script form of kāla (“time”)
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎[3] (in Pali), page 254; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      काले इच्चेतं अस्हिकारत्थं वेदितब्बं॥
      Kāle iccetaṃ adhikāratthaṃ veditabbaṃ.
      Note that time when is the purpose of the section

Declension[edit]


Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Dravidian *kār; compare Kannada ಕಾಡು (kāḍu, blackness, black), ಕಪ್ಪು (kappu).

Adjective[edit]

काल (kāla)

  1. black, dark blue
Declension[edit]
Masculine a-stem declension of काल (kāla)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कालः
kālaḥ
कालौ
kālau
कालाः / कालासः¹
kālāḥ / kālāsaḥ¹
Vocative काल
kāla
कालौ
kālau
कालाः / कालासः¹
kālāḥ / kālāsaḥ¹
Accusative कालम्
kālam
कालौ
kālau
कालान्
kālān
Instrumental कालेन
kālena
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालैः / कालेभिः¹
kālaiḥ / kālebhiḥ¹
Dative कालाय
kālāya
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Ablative कालात्
kālāt
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Genitive कालस्य
kālasya
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालानाम्
kālānām
Locative काले
kāle
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालेषु
kāleṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Feminine ī-stem declension of काली (kālī)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative काली
kālī
काल्यौ / काली¹
kālyau / kālī¹
काल्यः / कालीः¹
kālyaḥ / kālīḥ¹
Vocative कालि
kāli
काल्यौ / काली¹
kālyau / kālī¹
काल्यः / कालीः¹
kālyaḥ / kālīḥ¹
Accusative कालीम्
kālīm
काल्यौ / काली¹
kālyau / kālī¹
कालीः
kālīḥ
Instrumental काल्या
kālyā
कालीभ्याम्
kālībhyām
कालीभिः
kālībhiḥ
Dative काल्यै
kālyai
कालीभ्याम्
kālībhyām
कालीभ्यः
kālībhyaḥ
Ablative काल्याः
kālyāḥ
कालीभ्याम्
kālībhyām
कालीभ्यः
kālībhyaḥ
Genitive काल्याः
kālyāḥ
काल्योः
kālyoḥ
कालीनाम्
kālīnām
Locative काल्याम्
kālyām
काल्योः
kālyoḥ
कालीषु
kālīṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Neuter a-stem declension of काल (kāla)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कालम्
kālam
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Vocative काल
kāla
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Accusative कालम्
kālam
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Instrumental कालेन
kālena
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालैः / कालेभिः¹
kālaiḥ / kālebhiḥ¹
Dative कालाय
kālāya
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Ablative कालात्
kālāt
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Genitive कालस्य
kālasya
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालानाम्
kālānām
Locative काले
kāle
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालेषु
kāleṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Descendants[edit]

Noun[edit]

काल (kālam

  1. black, dark blue colour
  2. pupil (dark part of the eye)
Declension[edit]
Masculine a-stem declension of काल (kāla)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कालः
kālaḥ
कालौ
kālau
कालाः / कालासः¹
kālāḥ / kālāsaḥ¹
Vocative काल
kāla
कालौ
kālau
कालाः / कालासः¹
kālāḥ / kālāsaḥ¹
Accusative कालम्
kālam
कालौ
kālau
कालान्
kālān
Instrumental कालेन
kālena
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालैः / कालेभिः¹
kālaiḥ / kālebhiḥ¹
Dative कालाय
kālāya
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Ablative कालात्
kālāt
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Genitive कालस्य
kālasya
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालानाम्
kālānām
Locative काले
kāle
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालेषु
kāleṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Noun[edit]

काल (kālan

  1. a black kind of agarwood from Agallochum (now Aquilaria)
  2. a kind of perfume (कक्कोलक (kakkolaka))
  3. iron
Declension[edit]
Neuter a-stem declension of काल (kāla)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कालम्
kālam
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Vocative काल
kāla
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Accusative कालम्
kālam
काले
kāle
कालानि / काला¹
kālāni / kālā¹
Instrumental कालेन
kālena
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालैः / कालेभिः¹
kālaiḥ / kālebhiḥ¹
Dative कालाय
kālāya
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Ablative कालात्
kālāt
कालाभ्याम्
kālābhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālebhyaḥ
Genitive कालस्य
kālasya
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालानाम्
kālānām
Locative काले
kāle
कालयोः
kālayoḥ
कालेषु
kāleṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Etymology 2[edit]

Vṛddhi derivative of the root कल् (kal, to calculate or enumerate).

Noun[edit]

काल (kālám

  1. a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time (in general)
  2. the proper time or season for (+genitive, dative, locative, in compound, infinitive, or subjunctive with यद् (yad)
    • RV 10.42.9b
      उत परहामतिदीव्या जयाति कर्तं यच्छ्वघ्नी विचिनोतिकाले |
      यो देवकामो न धना रुणद्धि समित तं रायास्र्जति सवधावान ||
      uta prahāmatidīvyā jayāti kṛtaṃ yacchvaghnī vicinotikāle |
      yo devakāmo na dhanā ruṇaddhi samit taṃ rāyāsṛjati svadhāvān ||
      Yea, by superior play he wins advantage, when he, a gambler, piles his gains in season.
      Celestial-natured, he o’erwhelms with riches the devotee who keeps not back his treasure.
    kālaḥ prasthānasya or prasthānāya or prasthānetime for departure
    kriyā-kālatime for action
    nā-yaṃ kālo vilambitumthis is not the time to delay
    kālo yad bhuñjīta bhavānit is time for you to eat
  3. occasion, circumstance
  4. season
  5. meal-time (twice a day)
    ubhau kālauin the morning and in the evening
    ṣaṣṭhe kālein the evening of the third day
    ṣaṣṭhā-nna-kālaone who eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who passes five meals without eating and has no meal till the evening of the third day; or without अन्न (anna):
    caturtha-kālamat the fourth meal-time, i.e. at the evening of the second day
  6. hour, hence:
    ṣaṣṭhe kāle 'hnaḥat the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon
  7. a period of time, time of the world (= युग (yuga))
  8. measure of time, prosody
  9. a section, part
  10. the end
  11. death by age
  12. time (as leading to events, the causes of which are imperceptible to the mind of man), destiny, fate
  13. time (as destroying all things), death, time of death (often personified and represented with the attributes of Yama, regent of the dead, or even identified with him: hence
    kālo 'smi loka-kṣaya-kṛt pravṛddho
    kālam-√i or kālaṃ-√kṛto die; kāla in this sense is frequently connected with अन्तक (antaka), मृत्यु (mṛtyu) e.g.
    abhy-adhāvata prajāḥ kāla ivā-ntakaḥhe attacked the people like Time the destroyer; compare कालान्तक (kālā*ntaka)
  14. 'kāla personified is also a देवर्षि (devarṣi) in Indra's court, and a son of Dhruva
Declension[edit]
Masculine a-stem declension of काल (kālá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कालः
kāláḥ
कालौ
kālaú
कालाः / कालासः¹
kālā́ḥ / kālā́saḥ¹
Vocative काल
kā́la
कालौ
kā́lau
कालाः / कालासः¹
kā́lāḥ / kā́lāsaḥ¹
Accusative कालम्
kālám
कालौ
kālaú
कालान्
kālā́n
Instrumental कालेन
kāléna
कालाभ्याम्
kālā́bhyām
कालैः / कालेभिः¹
kālaíḥ / kālébhiḥ¹
Dative कालाय
kālā́ya
कालाभ्याम्
kālā́bhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālébhyaḥ
Ablative कालात्
kālā́t
कालाभ्याम्
kālā́bhyām
कालेभ्यः
kālébhyaḥ
Genitive कालस्य
kālásya
कालयोः
kāláyoḥ
कालानाम्
kālā́nām
Locative काले
kālé
कालयोः
kāláyoḥ
कालेषु
kāléṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]