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See also:
U+5E73, 平
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E73

[U+5E72]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E74]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
平-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 51, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一火十 (MFJ), four-corner 10409, composition(GHTJV) or ⿻(K))

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 339, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 646, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 407, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E73

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠀒
𠀭
𤔁

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
平-bronze.svg 平-seal.svg 平-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(p/b)ljaŋ (plank; palm; flat surface; wing), whence Jingpho phun-pyen (phun⁵⁵ pjen³³, plank), Burmese ပြန့် (pran., flat and even) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: peng4 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: piang3 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: bia̿ng - colloquial.
Note:
  • bàng - colloquial;
  • bìng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note: pîⁿ/pêⁿ, piâⁿ - vernacular, pêng - literary.
    Note:
    • bên5 - vernacular;
    • pêng5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pʰiŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /pʰiŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /pʰiŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /pʰiŋ²⁴/
    Xining /pʰiə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pʰiŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /pʰĩn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pʰiŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pʰin²¹³/
    Chengdu /pʰin³¹/
    Guiyang /pʰin²¹/
    Kunming /pʰĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /pʰin²⁴/
    Hefei /pʰin⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pʰiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /pʰiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /pʰĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /biŋ²³/
    Suzhou /bin¹³/
    Hangzhou /bin²¹³/
    Wenzhou /beŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /pʰiʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /pʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /pin¹³/
    Xiangtan /bin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /pʰiɑŋ²⁴/
    /pʰin²⁴/ ~時
    Hakka Meixian /pʰin¹¹/ 和~
    /pʰiaŋ¹¹/ 唔~
    Taoyuan /pʰiɑŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰeŋ²¹/
    Nanning /pʰeŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /pʰiŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /piŋ³⁵/
    /pĩ³⁵/ ~~路
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /piŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /peiŋ²¹/ 太~
    /piaŋ³³/ ~均
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pʰeŋ⁵⁵/
    /pẽ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /feŋ³¹/
    /ʔbɛ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /biajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    píng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ping4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    píng píng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjæng › ‹ bjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*breŋ/ /*m-breŋ/
    English even (adj.) make even

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9818
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*beŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. level; even; flat
        ―  píng fàng  ―  to put horizontally
        ―  píngyuán  ―  plain
      馬路 / 马路  ―  Mǎlù hěn píng.  ―  The road is very flat.
    2. equal; fair
        ―  píngfēn  ―  to divide evenly
        ―  chípíng  ―  impartial
      Synonym: (jūn)
    3. equal
      /   ―  píngbèi  ―  same generation
        ―  píngpíngzuò  ―  to be on an equal footing
      世界紀錄 / 世界纪录  ―  píng le shìjiè jìlù  ―  equalled a world record
      雙方 / 双方  ―  Shuāngfāng dǎ chéng wǔ píng.  ―  They reached 5-5.
    4. to level; to make level
    5. calm; peaceful
        ―  tàipíng  ―  peaceful and tranquil
      浪靜 / 浪静  ―  fēngpínglàngjìng  ―  to have no waves
      氣和 / 气和  ―  xīnpíngqìhé  ―  even-tempered and good-humoured
      Synonyms: (wěn), (jìng)
    6. to calm down; to make peaceful; to quiet down
      民憤 / 民愤  ―  píng mínfèn  ―  to assuage popular indignation
      /   ―  Nǐ xiān píng píng qì!  ―  Just calm down a bit first!
    7. to pacify
        ―  píngpàn  ―  to suppress a rebellion
    8. ordinary; common; mediocre; average
        ―  píng  ―  normal days
        ―  píngfán  ―  ordinary
        ―  píngmín  ―  civilian
      Synonyms: (cháng), (yōng)
      Antonyms: (), ()
    9. (Chinese phonetics) level tone (one of the four tones in Middle Chinese)
      上去入  ―  píngshǎngqùrù  ―  the four tones of Middle Chinese: level, rising, departing and checked
      /   ―  yángpíng  ―  light level tone
    10. (Cantonese, Hakka) cheap; inexpensive
      機票 / 机票 [Cantonese]  ―  peng4 gei1 piu3 [Jyutping]  ―  cheap air tickets
      [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      peng4 di1 dak1 m4 dak1 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Can it be cheaper?
    11. (Min Nan, Hakka) the same
      / [Teochew]  ―  i1 gah4 ua2 bên5 guin5. [Peng'im]  ―  He is as tall as me.
    12. (historical) Short for 北平 (Běipíng).
      戰役 / 战役  ―  Píng Jīn zhànyì  ―  Pingjin campaign
    13. A surname​, number 95 of the Baijiaxing
    Synonyms[edit]
    See also[edit]
    The tones (of Chinese) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    平仄
    平聲

    仄聲
    平上去入
    四聲
    古四聲

    平聲

    上聲

    去聲

    入聲
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
    [Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
    [Term?] ◌〮 ◌〯
    -X -H -p -t -k (-ʔ)
    四聲八調 陰平 陽平 陰上 陽上 陰去 陽去 陰入 陽入
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
    The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    四聲 陰平
    第一聲
    陽平
    第二聲
    上聲
    第三聲
    去聲
    第四聲
    輕聲

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Iu Mien: baengh (level)
    • Proto-Palaungic: *-pre/iŋ (equal, level) (Sidwell, 2015)
    • Proto-Tai: *biangᴬ (flat, even)
    • Proto-Vietic: *bang (flat, even)
      • Vietnamese: bằng (flat)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (77)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /biᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bjæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bian/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    pián
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    pin4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    pián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjien ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b]en/
    English distinguish; punctiious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9812
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    便
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ben/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (biàn).

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (obsolete) to control prices

    Pronunciation 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to shoot with a catapult; to pat; to beat; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    As an alternative form for :

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひら
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1ra⟩/pʲira//ɸira//hira/

    Stem of adjective 平たい (hiratai). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひら) (hira

    1. something flat; flattened
    2. something ordinary, common, mediocre
    3. a person of low-ranking status
      1. a freshman
      2. a novice
      3. a private
    4. the top ridge of a roof parallel to the side of a building (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    5. Short for 平織 (hiraori, plain weave).
    6. in bookbinding, the flat part of a cover (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    7. Short for 平椀 (hirawan).
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (ひら) (hira-

    1. single-minded (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
      connects to a noun

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひら) (Hira

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たいら
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨tapi1ra⟩/tapʲira//taɸira//tawira//taira/

    Nominalization of adjective 平ら (taira, flat, level).

    Noun[edit]

    (たいら) (tairaたひら (tafira)?

    1. a plain, flat (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (たいら) (Tairaたひら (tafira)?

    1. a surname​, especially of those descended from imperial lineage ineligible for the Chrysanthemum Throne:
      1. the 桓武平氏 (Kanmu Heishi), from Emperor Kanmu
      2. the 仁明平氏 (Ninmyō Heishi), from Emperor Ninmyō
      3. the 文徳平氏 (Montoku Heishi), from Emperor Montoku, and
      4. the 光孝平氏 (Kōkō Heishi), from Emperor Kōkō
    2. a placename, especially in Iwaki city, Fukushima Prefecture
    3. a male given name
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    へい
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (へい) (hei

    1. something neither high nor low
    2. something calm

    Affix[edit]

    (へい) (hei

    1. even, flat, level
    2. flatten, level
    3. uniform
    4. calm, gentle, peaceful
    5. common, ordinary, usual
    6. Short for 平氏 (Heishi) or 平家 (Heike): Taira clan
    7. (mathematics) square, square root
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (へい) (Hei

    1. a surname​.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひょう
    Grade: 3
    kan’yōon

    /pʲau//ɸʲɔː//hʲoː/

    Possibly from Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 慣用音 (kan'yōon, literally commonly accepted sound) reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひょう) (hyōひやう (fyau)?

    1. Short for 平韻 (hyōin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    2. Short for 平調 (hyōjō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Affix[edit]

    (ひょう) (hyōひやう (fyau)?

    1. Short for 平声 (hyōshō): the level tone in Middle Chinese

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    びょう
    Grade: 3
    goon

    /bʲau//bʲɔː//bʲoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Affix[edit]

    (びょう) (byōびやう (byau)?

    1. impartial, unbiased

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical verb おさむ (osamu), modern おさめる (osameru, multiple definitions in kanji).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (おさむ) (Osamuをさむ (wosamu)?

    1. a surname​.
    2. a male given name (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 等し (hitoshi), modern 等しい (hitoshii, equal, same).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひとし) (Hitoshi

    1. a surname​.
    2. a male given name

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 広し (hiroshi), modern 広い (hiroi, vast, wide).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひろし) (Hiroshi

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 9[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 安し (yasushi), modern Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information..

    Proper noun[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    1. Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information. (Can we verify(+) this sense?)Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    Etymology 10[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    Nominalization of classical adjective Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information., modern Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information..

    Proper noun[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    1. a surname​.Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information. (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    1. Hanja form? of Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information..

    Derived terms[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory. See Wiktionary:Lua memory errors for more information.

    Compounds[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    • Nôm: bình, bằng, bường

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu: Hán Việt Tự Điển, Hà Nội, 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Nom Foundation