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U+5B89, 安
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B89

[U+5B88]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B8A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
安-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 40, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十女 (JV), four-corner 30404, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 282, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7072
  • Dae Jaweon: page 552, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 913, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+5B89

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠕷
𭑨
𡚴
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Gan)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
安-oracle.svg 安-bronze.svg 安-seal.svg 安-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (a woman or a kneeling person) – person in a kneeling position sitting on the heels at home.

Etymology[edit]

calm; peaceful
A parallel stem is (OC *qeːns, “to be at ease; to rest”) (Wang, 1982; Schuessler, 2007).
Cognate with (OC *qaːns, “to push down with hand”), an exoactive derivative, literally “to cause to be settled; calmed” (ibid.).
Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔɨāɫ (rest), comparing it to Mizo âwl (to rest) (and also noting Dhimal [script needed] (el-ka, good)). STEDT, however, traces the Mizo word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-grwal ~ *ʔwal (finish, loose, relax) and did not list (OC *qaːn) among its comparanda: namely (OC *ɦŋoːn), (OC *ɢʷaːnʔ), (OC *qʰʷan, *qʰʷanʔ), (OC *ɢʷans, *ɢʷan).
where; how
Cognate with (OC *qaː, “how”) and (OC *qran, *qan, “where; how”), the latter of which is probably a variant of (OC *qaːn).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • an - literary;
  • oaⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • ang1 - literary;
  • uan1 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /an⁵⁵/
    Harbin /an⁴⁴/
    /nan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /nan²¹/
    Jinan /ŋã²¹³/
    Qingdao /ɣã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /an²⁴/
    Xi'an /ŋã²¹/
    Xining /nã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /an⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /an⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ŋan⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ŋan⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ŋan⁵⁵/
    /an⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /aŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ʐæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɣæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ŋɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ŋæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ø⁵³/
    Suzhou /ø⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /y³³/
    Hui Shexian /ŋɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /uːə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ŋan³³/
    Xiangtan /ŋan³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɵn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /on⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /on²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔn⁵³/
    Nanning /ɔn⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /ɔn⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /an⁵⁵/
    /uã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /aŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /aŋ³³/
    /uã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /aŋ²³/
    /ua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ān ān ān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ 'an › ‹ 'an › ‹ 'an ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/ /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/ /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/
    English peace(ful) how 安息 Ānxī (Iranian country in the western regions, W. Hàn; from Aršaka = Arsaces, founder of the Arsacid dynasty)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. calm; peaceful; tranquil; quiet
    2. comfortable; at ease
    3. safe; secure
    4. to calm; to pacify
    5. to feel satisfied with
    6. to find a place for; to plant
    7. to fit; to install
    8. to cherish; to harbour
    9. to confer (a title); to bestow; to put (the blame on someone)
    10. where
    11. how; why
    12. (physics) Short for 安培 (ānpéi, “ampere”).
    13. A surname​.
      1. (historical) A surname given to people from the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (安息 or 安國安国)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (あん) (an)
    • Korean: (, an)
    • Vietnamese: an ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あん
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    Sino-Japanese.

    Affix[edit]

    (あん) (an

    1. calm; peaceful
    2. safe; secure
    3. easy; simple
    4. cheap; inexpensive
    5. (chemistry) ammonium

    Derived terms[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 편안 (pyeonan an))

    1. Hanja form? of (peace, peacefulness).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: an[1][2][3][4][5], yên[4][5]
    : Nôm readings: yên[1][2][3][6][4][7], an[1][2][4][7], án[1], ăn[1]

    1. Hán tự form of an (safe; secure).
    2. Hán tự form of yên (calm; peaceful).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Zhuang[edit]

    Classifier[edit]

    1. Alternative form of 𬻹 (Sawndip form of aen)

    References[edit]

    • 古壮字字典 [Dictionary of Old Zhuang Characters], Guangxi: Ethnic Publishing House (广西民族出版社), 2012, →ISBN, page 1