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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 大戈人土 (KIOG), four-corner 40014, composition)

  1. Noun: male.chieftain.head.chief, Metaphor of strength.victory
  2. Adjective: manly,full power and grandeur
  3. Verb: bully

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1365, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41972
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1869, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4093, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+96C4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕyŋ²⁴/
/ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕyŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕyŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕyŋ²⁴/
Xining /ɕyə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕỹn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ²¹/
Kunming /ɕiŋ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ¹³/
Suzhou /ɦioŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕin⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /hioŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
Nanning /huŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³⁵/
/hiŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ²¹/
/xœyŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hioŋ⁵⁵/
/heŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³¹/
/hiaŋ³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (35)
Final: (2)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yóng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɨuŋ/ /ɦiuŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/ /ɦuwŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/ /ɣĭuŋ/ /i̯uŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xióng ‹ hjuwng › /*[ɢ]ʷəŋ/ male

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4140 0 /*ɡʷɯŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (formal) male (describing animals)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Commonly used for animals to mean "male" in academic contexts, less commonly used in non-academic contexts (use "" instead), and not used for humans (use "" instead). For example:
    /   ―  xióng  ―  cock
      ―  xióngniú  ―  bull

Antonyms[edit]

  • (, “female”)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ゆう
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(hjuwng, male).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ゆう, romaji )

  1. male
  2. something or someone excellent (male)
    一世 (いっせい) (ゆう)
    issei no
    one of the greatest men of his generation
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

/wo//o/

From Old Japanese. Persists in compounds, such as the first element o- in the modern Japanese term ‎(otoko, man).[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji o, historical hiragana )

  1. (obsolete in isolation) man, male
    • 711-712, Kojiki (上巻 [Kamitsumaki])
       ()こそは ()にいませば
      na koso wa o ni imaseba
      As you yourself be male / a man...
  2. (obsolete) husband
    • 711-712, Kojiki (上巻 [Kamitsumaki])
       ()はもよ ()にしあれば () () () () () () (つま) ()
      wa wa moyo me ni shiareba na o kite o wa nashi na o kite tsuma wa nashi
      As I am a woman, without you, there are no husbands. Without you, there are no wives...
  3. something large, powerful, or otherwise masculine
     () (たけ)び/ () (だき) (ますら) ()
    otakebi/odaki/masurao
    a war cry / the larger of two waterfalls / manliness
  4. yang (as opposed to yin)
     () () () ()
    meo, meo
    yin-yang (two different kanji spellings, same reading and derivation)
Usage notes[edit]

Not used in isolation in modern Japanese.

Derived terms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
おす
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/wosu//osu/

Compound of ‎(o, male) +‎ ‎(su), but the derivation of the su element is unknown.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おす, katakana オス, romaji osu, historical hiragana をす)

  1. male
Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common reading of this term in modern Japanese when used as a standalone noun.

Only used to refer to non-human male organisms. As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as オス.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
おん
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/won//on/

Compound of ‎(o, male) +‎ ‎(n). The latter -n element might be a contraction of the possessive particle ‎(no).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おん, romaji on, historical hiragana をん)

  1. male
Usage notes[edit]

Not used in isolation in modern Japanese.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ung) (hangeul , revised ung, McCune-Reischauer ung, Yale wung)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hùng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.