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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一竹人土 (MHOG), four-corner 70214, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1365, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41973
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1869, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4094, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+96C5

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (31)
Final: (98)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yǎ
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɣaX/ /ŋɯaX/ /ŋaX/ /ŋaɨX/ /ŋaX/ /ŋaX/ /ŋaX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngæX › /*N-ɢˤraʔ/ proper, refined
‹ ngæX › /*[N-ɢ]ˤraʔ/ kind of musical instrument

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14182 0 /*ŋraːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. elegant, graceful, refined
  2. (Teochew) pretty

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • Duffus, William, "beautiful" (p. 19) in English-Chinese Vocabulary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Swatow, English Presbyterian Mission Press, 1883.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(a) (hangeul , revised a, McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhã)

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