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U+7259, 牙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7259

[U+7258]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+725A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
牙-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 92, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女木竹 (MVDH), four-corner 10240)

  1. Kangxi radical #92, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 695, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19909
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1108, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1419, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7259

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
牙-bronze.svg 牙-seal.svg 牙-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Norman and Mei (1976) propose that this was a substrate loan; cf. Proto-Vietic *ŋaː (ivory) (Vietnamese ngà), Proto-Tai *ŋaːᴬ (tusk; ivory) (Thai งา (ngaa)). Pulleyblank (1983) disagrees with their hypothesis and considers Old Chinese to be the donor of this Wanderwort instead.

STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋja (tusk; tooth), comparing it to Mizo ngho (tusk; fang), Manipuri [script needed] (ya, tooth), Mru [script needed] (hngou, tooth), Pa'o Karen [script needed] (tə́ʔ ŋà, tooth).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngāi - synaeresis of 牙齒 used alone or in some compounds.
Note:
  • gê/gêe - vernacular (“tooth; fang; ivory; broker”);
  • gâ - literary (“screw thread”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • nga2 - vernacular;
    • ia2 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
    Harbin /ia²⁴/
    Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ia⁴²/
    Qingdao /ia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
    Xi'an /nia²⁴/
    Xining /ia²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ia⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ia²¹³/
    Chengdu /ia³¹/
    Guiyang /ia²¹/
    Kunming /ia̠³¹/
    Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
    Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nia¹¹/
    /ia¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /ia³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
    /ɦia²³/
    Suzhou /ŋɑ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ŋo³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ŋa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ia¹³/
    /ŋa¹³/
    Xiangtan /ŋɒ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɑ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋa¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋɑ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²¹/
    Nanning /ŋa²¹/
    Hong Kong /ŋa²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ga³⁵/
    /ge³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋa⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋẽ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /za³¹/
    /ŋɛ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋa/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-ɢˁ<r>a/
    English tooth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14177
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) tooth (Classifier: c;  c)
      / 齿  ―  chǐ  ―  tooth
    2. (anatomy) fang; tusk; canine tooth
        ―  jiān  ―  fang
    3. (anatomy) ivory; tusk of elephant
        ―  diāo  ―  ivory sculpture
    4. screw thread
    5. (historical) broker

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ge); () (ga)
    • Korean: (, a)
    • Vietnamese: nha ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. tusk, fang

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ki

    1. (obsolete) fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canine)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 9, poem 1809); text here
        ()喫建怒而(かみたけびて)
        kikamitakebite
        ferociously gnashing teeth
    Usage notes[edit]

    Although this term is no longer used in isolation, it does persist in certain compounds.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きば
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of Old Japanese elements (ki, fang, tusk) +‎ (ha, tooth).[2] The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きば) (kiba

    1. fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canines)
    2. (falconry) dog (primarily used for counting hunting dogs)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This is the most common term for fang in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かび
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with, and probably the noun derivation of, verb 黴びる (kabiru, to go moldy), from the root idea of something sprouting.[2] Used in the Kojiki.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かび) (kabi

    1. (obsolete) a plant sprout, a plant bud
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Non-standard alternate spelling for (ha, tooth).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ha

    1. Alternative spelling of (tooth)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Min Nan reading .

    The goon reading, so probably the reading as first imported into Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ge

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The tooth meaning is much more commonly expressed using the word (ha).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Cantonese reading ngaa4.

    The kan'on reading, so probably a later importation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (ga

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The ga reading is only used in compounds, and is never used in isolation.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 어금니 (eogeumni a))

    1. Hanja form? of (molar; cheek tooth).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nha, ngà, nga)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.