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U+7259, 牙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7259

[U+7258]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+725A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
牙-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 92 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女木竹 (MVDH), four-corner 10240)

  1. Kangxi radical #92, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 695, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19909
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1108, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1419, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7259

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
牙-bronze.svg 牙-seal.svg 牙-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ljaː, *laː
*ljaː
*ŋraː
*ŋraː
*ŋraː, *ŋraːs
*ŋraː, *hŋraː
*ŋraː, *ŋraːs
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*qraː
*laː

Etymology[edit]

Norman and Mei (1976) proposed that this was a substrate loan; cf. Proto-Vietic *ŋaː (ivory) (Vietnamese ngà), Proto-Tai *ŋaːᴬ (tusk; ivory) (Thai งา (ngaa)).

Pulleyblank (1983) disagreed with Norman and Mei's hypothesis, and considered Old Chinese to be the donor of this Wanderwort instead.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngāi - synaeresis of 牙齒 used alone or in some compounds.
Note:
  • gê/gêe - vernacular (“tooth; fang; ivory; broker”);
  • gâ - literary (“screw thread”).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
    Harbin /ia²⁴/
    Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ia⁴²/
    Qingdao /ia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
    Xi'an /nia²⁴/
    Xining /ia²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ia⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ia²¹³/
    Chengdu /ia³¹/
    Guiyang /ia²¹/
    Kunming /ia̠³¹/
    Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
    Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nia¹¹/
    /ia¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /ia³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
    /ɦia²³/
    Suzhou /ŋɑ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ŋo³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ŋa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ia¹³/
    /ŋa¹³/
    Xiangtan /ŋɒ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɑ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋa¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋɑ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²¹/
    Nanning /ŋa²¹/
    Hong Kong /ŋa²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ga³⁵/
    /ge³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋa⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋẽ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /za³¹/
    /ŋɛ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋa/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-ɢˤ<r>a/
    English tooth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14177
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) tooth (Classifier: c;  c)
      / 齿  ―  chǐ  ―  tooth
    2. (anatomy) fang; tusk; canine tooth
        ―  jiān  ―  fang
    3. (anatomy) ivory; tusk of elephant
        ―  diāo  ―  ivory sculpture
    4. screw thread
    5. (historical) broker

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 牙齒 (“tooth”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 牙齒
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan 牙齒才調子
    Chengdu 牙齒
    Yangzhou 牙子
    Hefei 牙齒
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang 牙齒
    Hakka Meixian 牙齒
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 牙齒
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 牙齒
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 牙齒
    Dongshi (Dabu) 牙齒
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 牙齒
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 牙齒
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou 牙齒
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen 喙齒
    Quanzhou 喙齒
    Zhangzhou 喙齒
    Taipei 喙齒
    Kaohsiung 喙齒
    Philippines (Manila) 喙齒
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai 牙子牙齒
    Suzhou 牙子
    Wenzhou 牙齒
    Xiang Changsha 牙齒
    Shuangfeng 牙齒

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (ge);  () (ga)
    • Korean: (, a)
    • Vietnamese: nha ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. tusk, fang

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ki)

    1. (obsolete) fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canine)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 9, poem 1809); text here
        喫建怒而
        かみたけびて
        ki kami takebite
        ferociously gnashing teeth
    Usage notes[edit]

    Although this term is no longer used in isolation, it does persist in certain compounds.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きば
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of Old Japanese elements (ki, fang, tusk) +‎ (ha, tooth).[2] The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana きば, rōmaji kiba)

    1. fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canines)
    2. (falconry) dog (primarily used for counting hunting dogs)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This is the most common term for fang in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かび
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with, and probably the noun derivation of, verb 黴びる (kabiru, to go moldy), from the root idea of something sprouting.[2] Used in the Kojiki.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かび, rōmaji kabi)

    1. (obsolete) a plant sprout, a plant bud
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Non-standard alternate spelling for (ha, tooth).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ha)

    1. Alternative spelling of tooth

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Min Nan reading ge5.

    The goon reading, so probably the reading as first imported into Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ge)

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The tooth meaning is much more commonly expressed using the word (ha).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Cantonese reading ngaa4.

    The kan'on reading, so probably a later importation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ga)

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The ga reading is only used in compounds, and is never used in isolation.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (a) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nha, hữu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.