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U+7259, 牙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7259

[U+7258]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+725A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
牙-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 92 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女木竹 (MVDH), four-corner 10240)

  1. Kangxi radical #92, (fang).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 695, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19909
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1108, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1419, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7259

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
牙-bronze.svg 牙-bigseal.svg 牙-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ljaː, *laː
*ljaː
*ŋraː
*ŋraː
*ŋraː, *ŋraːs
*ŋraː, *hŋraː
*ŋraː, *ŋraːs
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːʔ
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*ŋraːs
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*hŋraː
*qraː
*laː

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngāi - synaeresis of 牙齒 used alone or in some compounds.
Note:
  • gê/gêe - vernacular (“tooth; fang; ivory; broker”);
  • gâ - literary (“screw thread”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
Harbin /ia²⁴/
Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ia⁴²/
Qingdao /ia⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
Xi'an /nia²⁴/
Xining /ia²⁴/
Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
Lanzhou /ia⁵³/
Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
Wuhan /ia²¹³/
Chengdu /ia³¹/
Guiyang /ia²¹/
Kunming /ia̠³¹/
Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nia¹¹/
/ia¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
Hohhot /ia³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
/ɦia²³/
Suzhou /ŋɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ŋo³¹/
Hui Shexian /ŋa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ia¹³/
/ŋa¹³/
Xiangtan /ŋɒ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɑ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋa¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋɑ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²¹/
Nanning /ŋa²¹/
Hong Kong /ŋa²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ga³⁵/
/ge³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋa⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋẽ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /za³¹/
/ŋɛ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠa/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋa/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ŋa/
Wang
Li
/ŋa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæ ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-ɢˤ<r>a/
English tooth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14177
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (anatomy) tooth
    / 齿  ―  chǐ  ―  tooth
  2. (anatomy) fang; tusk; canine tooth
      ―  jiān  ―  fang
  3. (anatomy) ivory; tusk of elephant
      ―  xiàng  ―  ivory
  4. screw thread
  5. (historical) broker

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 牙齒 (“tooth”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 牙齒
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 牙齒才調子
Chengdu 牙齒
Yangzhou 牙子
Hefei 牙齒
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang 牙齒
Hakka Meixian 牙齒
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 牙齒
Liudui (S. Sixian) 牙齒
Hsinchu (Hailu) 牙齒
Dongshi (Dabu) 牙齒
Zhuolan (Raoping) 牙齒
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 牙齒
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou 牙齒
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen 喙齒
Quanzhou 喙齒
Zhangzhou 喙齒
Taipei 喙齒
Kaohsiung 喙齒
Philippine 喙齒
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 牙子牙齒
Suzhou 牙子
Wenzhou 牙齒
Xiang Changsha 牙齒
Shuangfeng 牙齒

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  ()(ge);  ()(ga)
  • Korean: (, a)
  • Vietnamese: nha()

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tusk, fang

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ki)

  1. (obsolete) fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canine)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 9, poem 1809); text here
      喫建怒而
      かみたけびて
      ki kami takebite
      ferociously gnashing teeth
Usage notes[edit]

Although this term is no longer used in isolation, it does persist in certain compounds.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きば
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Compound of Old Japanese elements (ki, fang, tusk) +‎ (ha, tooth).[2] The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana きば, romaji kiba)

  1. fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canines)
  2. (falconry) dog (primarily used for counting hunting dogs)
Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common term for fang in modern Japanese.

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かび
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Cognate with, and probably the noun derivation of, verb 黴びる(kabiru, to go moldy), from the root idea of something sprouting.[2] Used in the Kojiki.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かび, romaji kabi)

  1. (obsolete) a plant sprout, a plant bud
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

Non-standard alternate spelling for (ha, tooth).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ha)

  1. Alternative spelling of tooth

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Min Nan reading ge5.

The goon reading, so probably the reading as first imported into Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ge)

  1. an animal's fang or tusk
  2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
  3. a tooth
Usage notes[edit]

The tooth meaning is much more commonly expressed using the word (ha).

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Cantonese reading ngaa4.

The kan'on reading, so probably a later importation.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ga)

  1. an animal's fang or tusk
  2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
  3. a tooth
Usage notes[edit]

The ga reading is only used in compounds, and is never used in isolation.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(a) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nha, hữu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.