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U+7259, 牙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7259

[U+7258]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+725A]
U+2F5B, ⽛
KANGXI RADICAL FANG

[U+2F5A]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F5C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
牙-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 92, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女木竹 (MVDH), four-corner 10240, composition ⿹⿻𠃋丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #92, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №39

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 695, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19909
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1108, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1419, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7259

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
牙-bronze.svg 牙-seal.svg 牙-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Norman and Mei (1976) propose that this was a substrate loan; cf. Proto-Vietic *ŋaː (ivory) (Vietnamese ngà), Proto-Tai *ŋaːᴬ (tusk; ivory) (Thai งา (ngaa)). Pulleyblank (1983) disagrees with their hypothesis and considers Old Chinese to be the donor of this Wanderwort instead.

STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋja (tusk; tooth), comparing it to Mizo ngho (tusk; fang), Manipuri ꯌꯥ (, tooth), Mru [script needed] (hngou, tooth), Pa'o Karen [script needed] (tə́ʔ ŋà, tooth).

Hong Kong Cantonese neologism prefix
From (aa3).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngaa4-2 - screw thread.
Note: ngāi - synaeresis of 牙齒 used alone or in some compounds.
Note:
  • gê/gêe - vernacular (“tooth; fang; ivory; broker”);
  • gâ - literary (“screw thread”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • nga2 - vernacular;
    • ia2 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
    Harbin /ia²⁴/
    Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ia⁴²/
    Qingdao /ia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
    Xi'an /nia²⁴/
    Xining /ia²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ia⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ia²¹³/
    Chengdu /ia³¹/
    Guiyang /ia²¹/
    Kunming /ia̠³¹/
    Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
    Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nia¹¹/
    /ia¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /ia³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
    /ɦia²³/
    Suzhou /ŋɑ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ŋo³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ŋa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ia¹³/
    /ŋa¹³/
    Xiangtan /ŋɒ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɑ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋa¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋɑ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²¹/
    Nanning /ŋa²¹/
    Hong Kong /ŋa²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ga³⁵/
    /ge³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋa⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋẽ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /za³¹/
    /ŋɛ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋa/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngaa4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-ɢˁ<r>a/
    English tooth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14177
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) tooth (Classifier: c;  c)
      齿  ―  chǐ  ―  tooth
        ―  téng.  ―  I have a toothache.
    2. (anatomy) fang; tusk; canine tooth
        ―  jiān  ―  fang
    3. (anatomy) ivory; tusk of elephant
        ―  diāo  ―  ivory sculpture
    4. screw thread
    5. (Hong Kong Cantonese, Internet slang, leetspeak, neologism) Prefix used in front of the surname or last character of someone’s given name to express familiarity or friendliness.
      Synonym: (aa3)
    6. (historical) broker

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ge); () (ga)
    • Korean: (, a)
    • Vietnamese: nha ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. tusk, fang

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ki

    1. (obsolete) fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canine)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 9, poem 1809); text here
        ()喫建怒而(かみたけびて)
        kikamitakebite
        ferociously gnashing teeth
    Usage notes[edit]

    Although this term is no longer used in isolation, it does persist in certain compounds.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きば
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of Old Japanese elements (ki, fang, tusk) +‎ (ha, tooth).[2] The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きば) (kiba

    1. fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canines)
    2. (falconry) dog (primarily used for counting hunting dogs)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This is the most common term for fang in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かび
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with, and probably the noun derivation of, verb 黴びる (kabiru, to go moldy), from the root idea of something sprouting.[2] Used in the Kojiki.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かび) (kabi

    1. (obsolete) a plant sprout, a plant bud
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Non-standard alternate spelling for (ha, tooth).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ha

    1. Alternative spelling of (tooth)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠa). Compare modern Min Nan reading .

    The goon reading, so probably the reading as first imported into Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ge

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The tooth meaning is much more commonly expressed using the word (ha).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠa). Compare modern Cantonese reading ngaa4.

    The kan'on reading, so probably a later importation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (ga

    1. an animal's fang or tusk
    2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
    3. a tooth
    Usage notes[edit]

    The ga reading is only used in compounds, and is never used in isolation.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠa).

    Recorded as Middle Korean ᅌᅡᆼ (Yale: nga) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    Recorded as Middle Korean (a) (Yale: a) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 어금니 (eogeumni a))

    1. Hanja form? of (molar; cheek tooth).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: nha, ngà

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.