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U+4E01, 丁
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E01

[U+4E00]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E02]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
丁-bw.png
Stroke order
丁-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
丁-oracle.svg 丁-bronze.svg 丁-silk.svg 丁-bigseal.svg 丁-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tʰeːnʔ, *tʰeːŋʔ
*tʰeːnʔ, *tʰeːŋ, *tʰeːŋʔ, *deːŋʔ
*rteŋʔ, *teːŋʔ
*rteŋʔ, *rdeŋ
*rteːŋ, *rdeːŋ
*rteːŋ, *teːŋ
*rteːŋ, *teːŋ
*rdeːŋ, *tʰeŋ, *teːŋ
*rdeːŋ
*teːŋ, *teːŋs
*teːŋ, *teːŋʔ
*teːŋ
*teːŋ
*teːŋ
*teːŋʔ
*teːŋʔ
*teːŋʔ
*teːŋʔ
*teːŋʔ, *deːŋ
*teːŋs
*teːŋs, *tʰeːŋ, *deːŋʔ
*teːŋs
*tʰeːŋ, *tʰeːŋs
*tʰeːŋ, *tʰeːŋʔ
*tʰeːŋ
*deːŋ
*deːŋ
*deːŋ
*deːŋ
*deːŋ
*deːŋ

Pictogram (象形): a nail.

The modern character for "nail" is /.

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 一弓 (MN), four-corner 10200, composition)

  1. male adult
  2. robust, vigorous
  3. the fourth of the ten heavenly stems
  4. used as a surname

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 75, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2
  • Dae Jaweon: page 135, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 2, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E01

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 丁 (姓)
Mandarin Beijing /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /tiŋ²¹/
Jinan /tiŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /tiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /tiŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /tiŋ²¹/
Xining /tiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /tĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /tin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /tin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /tin⁵⁵/
Kunming /tĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /tin³¹/
Hefei /tin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /tiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /tiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /tĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /tiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /tin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /tin³³/
Wenzhou /teŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /tiʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /tɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /tin³³/
Xiangtan /tin³³/
Gan Nanchang /tiɑŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /ten⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ten²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /teŋ⁵³/
Nanning /teŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /taiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /teŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdeŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (5)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/teŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/teŋ/
Wang
Li
/tieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dīng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dīng dīng zhēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ teng › ‹ teng › ‹ trɛng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤeŋ/ /*tˤeŋ/ /*tˤreŋ/
English 4th heavenly stem nail (n.) sound of beating

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 2372 2378
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rteːŋ/ /*teːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. man
  2. population, members of a family
  3. cube
  4. the fourth of the ten heavenly stems
  5. A surname​.
  6. fourth
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (9)
Final () (117)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈˠɛŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈᵚæŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶɐŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈəɨjŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȶɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȶæŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶæŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhēng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trɛng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤreŋ/
English sound of beating

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2372
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rteːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. See 丁丁 (zhēngzhēng).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. leaf, block, cake
  2. 4th in rank, fourth sign of the Chinese calendar
  3. street

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jeong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: jeong, McCune-Reischauer: chŏng, Yale: ceng)
  • Name (hangeul): 고무래, 장정 (revised: gomurae, jangjeong, McCune-Reischauer: komurae, changjŏng, Yale: komuray, cangceng)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]