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U+8F9B, 辛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8F9B

[U+8F9A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8F9C]
U+2F9F, ⾟
KANGXI RADICAL BITTER

[U+2F9E]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA0]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 160, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜廿十 (YTJ), four-corner 00401, composition or 𢆉)

  1. Kangxi radical #160, .

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1250, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38630
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1729, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4036, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8F9B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script

Pictogram (象形) of a tool—chisel, awl, spike—used to mark slaves and criminals. It is related to .

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-sin (liver; heart; bile; bitter); compare Tibetan མཆིན (mchin, liver), Burmese သည်း (sany:, liver), Tangut 𗮰 (*sji², liver) (Gong, 2002; Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/sin/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sin/
Li
Rong
/siĕn/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
san1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sin ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]i[n]/
English pungent; painful

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13810
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*siŋ/
Notes
𠞂

Definitions[edit]

  1. spicy; hot; pungent
      ―  xīn  ―  spicy
  2. hard; laborious; toilsome
      ―  xīn  ―  laborious
  3. sorrowful; miserable; hard
      ―  xīnsuān  ―  bitter
  4. a surname
      ―  Xīn Qìjí  ―  Xin Qiji (Chinese poet during the Southern Song dynasty)
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Smith (2011) proposes that the name for the heavenly stem is based on the Boötes constellation, which resembles an awl; it may be related to Etymology 1 with the “sharp” semantics connecting the two.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/sin/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sin/
Li
Rong
/siĕn/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
san1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sin ›
Old
Chinese
/*si[n]/
English 8th heavenly stem

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13810
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*siŋ/
Notes
𠞂

Definitions[edit]

  1. eighth of the ten heavenly stems
  2. (in a list) eighth; number 8; VIII
  3. (organic chemistry) octa-
Coordinate terms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しん) (shin)
  • Korean: 신(辛) (sin)
  • Vietnamese: tân ()

Others:

  • Zhuang: sin

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from English symplectic.

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (mathematics, attributive) symplectic

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Used in transcription.

Compounds[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. spicy, hot, acrid
  2. bitter, painful, difficult

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: S
on’yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

From Middle Chinese (sin).

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(しん) (Shin

  1. the eighth of the ten heavenly stems

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かのと
Grade: S
kun’yomi

(Ka, Metal, one of the Five Elements) +‎ (no, attributive marker) +‎ (oto, younger brother)

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(かのと) (Kanoto

  1. the eighth of the ten heavenly stems

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 매울 (mae'ul sin))

  1. bitter
  2. toilsome, laborious
  3. 8th heavenly stem

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tân, tăn, tơn

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.