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See also:
U+81E3, 臣
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-81E3

[U+81E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+81E4]
U+2F82, ⾂
KANGXI RADICAL MINISTER

[U+2F81]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F83]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
臣-order.gif
Stroke order
(Japan)
臣-jorder.gif
Stroke order
(cursive)
臣-cursive-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 131, +0, 6 strokes in Chinese, 7 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 尸中尸中 (SLSL), four-corner 71717, composition𠃊𠃍丅 or ⿷丨 or ⿻丨)

  1. Kangxi radical #131, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 999, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30068
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1450, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2801, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+81E3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script
臣-oracle.svg 臣-bronze.svg 臣-silk.svg 臣-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – A vertical eye of a man looking downwards. As the individual character it is used as a metaphor meaning “to surrender”, while the meaning relating to eyes appears when used as a radical, such as in (“to look down at”).

Etymology[edit]

In Old Chinese, nominalization with with nasal suffix of the verb (OC *ɡljilʔ, *ɡljils, *ɢljils, “to watch”), hence literally "watcher; supervisor" (Schuessler 2007). In the archaic language of the Shang oracle bones (late second millennium BCE), this word referred to "royal officers, many of whose individual names were recorded, who served in the royal court, received the king's orders to launch military expeditions and other tasks, and received royal gifts" (Keightley 2012).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑin/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑin/
Li
Rong
/ʑiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
san4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chén
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]i[ŋ]/
English slave, subject

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1342
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡiŋ/
Notes

使

Definitions[edit]

  1. minister; statesman; official
  2. (more broadly) subjects of a monarch
  3. to make a subject
  4. (humble, historical or archaic) I, me; your servant (humble pronoun, especially when speaking to a monarch)
  5. A surname​.

Derived terms[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Korean: (, sin)
  • Vietnamese: thần ()

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
おみ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/omi1/ *[omi] → /omi/ [omi]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(おみ) (omi

  1. one who serves a lord; a vassal, subject

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑiɪn). Recorded as Middle Korean (sin) (Yale: sin) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 신하 (sinha sin))

  1. Hanja form? of (one who serves).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: thần, thườn

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.