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See also: , , , and
U+4E3B, 主
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E3B

[U+4E3A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E3C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
0 strokes
Stroke order
主-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 3, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 卜土 (YG), four-corner 00104, composition or ⿱)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 80, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 163, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 44, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E3B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
示-oracle.svg 主-bronze.svg 主-seal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tʰoːʔ
*tʰoːʔ
*tʰoːʔ
*tʰoːʔ
*doːɡ, *tjos
*toʔ
*toʔ, *doʔ
*tos
*tos, *tjos
*tos
*tos
*tos, *dos
*doʔ
*doʔ
*tjoʔ
*tjoʔ
*tjoʔ
*tjoʔ, *tjos
*tjos
*tjos
*tjos
*tjos

Pictogram (象形) : A picture of a lamp or a torch with a flame at the top.

Original form of . Current meaning acquired by sound loan.

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǔ
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*toʔ/
English master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjoʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. owner; master
  2. host
  3. (Christianity, Islam) Lord
  4. emperor
  5. (colloquial, derogatory) person of a specified type
  6. main; primary
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
  7. to be in charge of
  8. to indicate; to signify
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (しゅ) (shu)
  • Korean: (, ju)
  • Vietnamese: chủ ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Classifier for events.
  2. Alternative form of (zhù, “to pour into”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

(-na inflection, hiragana おも, rōmaji omo)

  1. chief, main, principal, foremost

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana しゅ, rōmaji shu)

  1. head of the family
  2. master, mistress
  3. one's husband
  4. proprietor, landlord

Synonyms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana しゅ, rōmaji Shu)

  1. the Lord
     (しゅ) (きょう) (だい)ヤコブ
    Shu no kyōdai Yakobu
    James, brother of the Lord

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぬし, rōmaji nushi)

  1. master
  2. owner, proprietor
  3. guardian spirit

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum ju))
(eumhun 주인 (ju-in ju))

  1. king, master, host

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(chủ, chúa)

  1. Hán tự form of chủ, (“owner”).
  2. Nôm form of chúa, “retired father of a king”
  3. Nôm form of Chúa, “God; Christ; Lord

Usage notes[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]