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See also: , , , and
U+4E3B, 主
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E3B

[U+4E3A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E3C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
0 strokes
Stroke order
主-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 3, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 卜土 (YG), four-corner 00104, composition or ⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 80, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 163, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 44, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E3B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
主-oracle.svg 主-bronze.svg 主-seal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): A picture of a lamp or a torch with a flame at the top.

Original form of . Current meaning acquired by sound loan.

Etymology[edit]

Unclear. Compare Tibetan ཇོ་བོ (jo bo, elder brother, nobleman, lord), Tibetan ཇོ་མོ (jo mo, mistress, lady, goddess), Tibetan ཐུ། (thu, chief), Proto-Monic *(d)ndooʔ (to teach, to instruct; headman), and Thai โจก (jòok, leader, chief) (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǔ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zyu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*toʔ/
English master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjoʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. owner; master
  2. host
  3. (archaic, honorific) you (honorific second-person pronoun addressing a "senior official" [大夫] or his spouse)
  4. (Christianity, Islam) Lord
  5. emperor
  6. (colloquial, derogatory) person of a specified type
  7. agent; agency
    /   ―  zhǔdòng  ―  active
    /   ―  zhǔ  ―  subject (one who possesses agency)
  8. party; entity
      ―  shìzhǔ  ―  party (in a dispute, especially the one bringing forth the dispute)
  9. main; primary; principal; major
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
      ―  zhǔyǎn  ―  leading actor
      ―  zhǔxiū  ―  major curriculum
  10. to be in charge; to lead; to command
      ―  zhǔshì  ―  to be in charge
  11. to indicate; to signify
  12. (grammar) Short for 主語主语 (zhǔyǔ).
  13. (historical) Short for 公主 (gōngzhǔ).
  14. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゅ) (shu)
  • Korean: (, ju)
  • Vietnamese: chủ ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Classifier for events.
  2. Alternative form of (zhù, “to pour into”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
しゅ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(しゅ) (shu

  1. head of the family
  2. master, mistress
  3. one's husband
  4. proprietor, landlord
Synonyms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(しゅ) (Shu

  1. the Lord
    (しゅ)(きょう)(だい)ヤコブ
    Shu no kyōdai Yakobu
    James, brother of the Lord

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぬし
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ぬし
[noun] master
[noun] owner, proprietor
[noun] guardian spirit
[noun] (archaic) you
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
おも
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おも
[adjective] chief, main, principal, foremost
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
あるじ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あるじ
[noun] head of a household
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨoX). Recorded as Middle Korean 쥬〮 (Yale: cyu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum ju))
(eumhun 주인 (ju'in ju))

  1. Hanja form? of (king).
  2. Hanja form? of (master; host; main).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 主
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: chủ, chúa
: Nôm readings: chúa, chủ

  1. Hán tự form of chủ (owner).
  2. Nôm form of chúa (retired father of a king).
  3. Nôm form of Chúa (God; Christ; Lord).

Usage notes[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]