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See also:
U+4F2F, 伯
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F2F

[U+4F2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F30]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹日 (OHA), four-corner 26200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 96, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 466
  • Dae Jaweon: page 204, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 136, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4F2F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pʰraːɡs, *pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡs, *mbraːd
*pʰaːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*pʰaːɡ
*baːɡ
*baːɡ
*tʰaːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*prɯɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡ, *ɡeːwʔ
*mpʰraːɡ, *mbraːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*praɡ, *preɡ
*ɦmreːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *praːɡ): semantic  (person) + phonetic  (OC *braːɡ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • bǎi - vernacular (“husband’s elder brother”, e.g. 大伯子);
  • bāi - vernacular in some words (伯伯).
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • peh - vernacular;
    • pek/piak - literary, surname;
    • phek - literary (limited, e.g. 山伯);
    • pit - only used in 伯勞.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /paɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /pɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /pɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˤrak/
    English father’s elder brother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 193
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*praːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (archaic) eldest brother
    2. paternal uncle; father's elder brother
    3. form of address for senior males
    4. (historical) count (rank)
      五等爵位
    5. (Jilu Mandarin) mother
    6. (Jilu Mandarin) paternal aunt (wife of father's elder brother)
    7. (Wu) paternal aunt (father's sister)
    8. A surname​.

    Usage notes[edit]

    In Old Chinese, sons of a same father are referred to in order as (“first”), (zhòng, “second”), (shū, “third”) and (, “fourth”). The usage of and was later eliminated but and remained in use when referring to one's father's elder and younger brothers and male cousins. Moreover, 伯仲叔季 were commonly used in personal names in the past, and this is still occasionally seen nowadays.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “feudal chief”).
    2. Alternative form of (, “to dominate; to lead”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“path between farmlands; street; path; road”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Pronunciation 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“troop of 100 soldiers; hundred,; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. count, earl
    2. eldest brother, eldest uncle
    3. chief official
    4. (abbreviation) Brazil

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (baek, pae)

    1. ( 백, mat-): eldest (elder) brother
    2. (우두머리 백, udumeori-): chief, chieftain, feudal rank count, earl (abolished in the late 14th century)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (, bác)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]