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U+9B44, 魄
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B44

[U+9B43]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B45]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 194, +5, 15 strokes, cangjie input 竹日竹山戈 (HAHUI), four-corner 26613, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1461, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1995, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4431, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+9B44

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
魄-bronze.svg 魄-seal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Related to (OC *braːɡ, “white”) (Schuessler, 2007).

"illuminated part of the moon"
Wang (1923) in 《生霸死霸考》 supports the definition by examining textual traditions of the Chinese classics and archaeological evidences from the Western Zhou era (c. 11th–8th centuries B.C.E.). Bronze script texts from the era commonly use the form (OC *praːɡs).
"dark part of the moon"
Chiefly found in some old dictionaries based on another textual tradition, traced by Wang (1923) to the calendrical innovations of Liu Xin and later Confucian "pseudepigraphy".

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (2)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pʰˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pʰᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pʰak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pʰaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/pʰɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/pʰɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pʰɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
po
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰˁrak/
English bodily form or soul

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 201
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pʰraːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (religion, folklore) the po, the soul which does not leave the body after death, compared to (hún) which does.
  2. soul; spirit
  3. vigor
  4. body
  5. (archaic, Chinese astronomy) bright, illuminated part of the moon
  6. (obsolete, retroactively proscribed) dark part of the moon
See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
  • Korean: (, baek)
  • Vietnamese: phách ()

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. sound of falling
  2. Used in 魄莫.
  3. Used in 旁魄.

Pronunciation 3[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰak̚/
Li
Rong
/tʰɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/tʰɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tuo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tok3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 191
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tʰaːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 落魄 (luòtuò), alternative form of 落拓 (luòtuò).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. a soul

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
たま
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Perhaps from (tama, jewel)

Noun[edit]

(たま) (tama

  1. Alternative spelling of (soul)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
はく
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi
Wikipedia-logo.png
 魂魄 on Japanese Wikipedia

From Middle Chinese (phæk)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(はく) (haku

  1. (religion, folklore) po (haku), the soul which does not leave the body after death, compared to hun (kon) which does.
    • 2004 June 15, Takahashi, Rumiko, “(だい)() ()(さく) [Chapter 1: Prototypes]”, in (いぬ)()(しゃ) [Inuyasha], volume 35 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 8:
      (こん)(こころ)…つまり(たましい)だ。そして(はく)(からだ)(うご)かす(ちから)
      Kon wa kokoro… Tsumari tamashī da. Soshite haku wa karada o ugokasu chikara…
      Kon is the heart… in other words, the soul. And haku is the force that moves the body…
    • 2004 June 15, Takahashi, Rumiko, “(だい)() ()(さく) [Chapter 1: Prototypes]”, in (いぬ)()(しゃ) [Inuyasha], volume 35 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 8:
      (はく)ってやつがあれば、(たましい)のない()(がい)でも(うご)くんだな。
      Haku tte yatsu ga areba, tamashī no nai shigai de mo ugoku n da na.
      As long as it has this haku thing, even a soulless corpse can move.
Derived terms[edit]

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC pʰˠæk̚).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (neok baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (soul; spirit).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC tʰɑk̚).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 영락할 (yeongnakhal tak))

  1. Hanja form? of (to wither and fall).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: phách

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.