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U+9B42, 魂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B42

[U+9B41]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B43]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 194, +4, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一戈竹戈 (MIHI), four-corner 16713, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1461, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45787
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1994, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4428, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+9B42

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
魂-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢuːn): phonetic  (OC *ɢun) + semantic .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (55)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuən/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuon/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwən/
Li
Rong
/ɣuən/
Wang
Li
/ɣuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hún
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hún
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwon ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m.]qʷˁə[n]/
English spiritual soul

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16353
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢuːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (religion, folklore) the hun, the soul which goes to heaven, as opposed to the (), which goes down to the earth with the body at death.
  2. soul; spirit
  3. mood
  4. the lofty spirit of a nation or people

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. soul, spirit
  2. vigor/vigour, willpower

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
たましい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨tamasipi1 → */tamasipʲi//tamaɕifi//tamaɕiwi//tamaɕiː/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tamasipi.

Compound of (tama, soul, spirit, see below) and an uncertain shii, possibly 強ひ (shihi → shii), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of classical verb 強ふ (shifu → shiu), modern 強いる (shiiru, to force, compel). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(たましい) (tamashii (historical kana たましひ)

  1. (religion, folklore) a soul, spirit
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3767), text here
      多麻之比(たましひ)()安之多由布敝尓(あしたゆふへに)多麻布礼杼(たまふれど)安我牟祢伊多之(あがむねいたし)古非能之氣吉尓(こひのしげきに) [Man'yōgana]
      (たましひ)(あした)(ゆふべ)にたまふれど()(むね)(いた)(こひ)(しげ)きに [Modern spelling]
      tamashii wa ashita-yūbe ni tamafuredo aga mune itashi koi no shigeki ni
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonyms: ゼーレ (zēre), ソウル (sōru), 霊魂 (reikon)
  2. mind, spirit, vigor/vigour, willpower
    Synonyms: ガイスト (gaisuto), 気力 (kiryoku), (kokoro), 心魂 (kokorodama), 精神 (seishin)
  3. (figuratively) spirit (manner or style of something, enthusiasm)
  4. (figuratively, by extension) attitude, readiness
    Synonym: 気構え (kigamae)
  5. discretion, judgement, prudence
    Synonyms: 才略 (sairyaku), 思慮 (shiryo), 分別 (funbetsu)
  6. character, genius, talent, wisdom
    Synonyms: 素質 (soshitsu), 天分 (tenbun), 才気 (saiki)
  7. (from a warrior's "spirit") a katana (single-edged Japanese sword)
    Synonym: (katana)
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
たま
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tama.

Thought to be cognate with (tama, jewel).[1]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(たま) (tama (historical kana たま)

  1. a soul, spirit
    • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 10, poem 448)
      空蟬(うつせみ)のからは()ごとにとどむれどたまのゆくへを()ぬぞかなしき
      utsusemi no kara-wa-ki-goto ni todomuredo tama no yukue no minu zo kanashiki
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: 霊魂 (reikon)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
こん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuən).

Compare modern Mandarin (hún)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こん) (kon

  1. mind, spirit, will
    Synonyms: (kokoro), 精神 (seishin)
  2. a soul, spirit
    Synonym: 霊魂 (reikon)
  3. hun: yang energy or spirit
    Antonym: (haku)
    Hypernym: 魂魄 (konpaku)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: S
Irregular

From (kokoro, heart, mind, spirit).

Proper noun[edit]

(こころ) (Kokoro

  1. a female given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hon) (hangeul , revised hon, McCune–Reischauer hon, Yale hon)

  1. soul, spirit

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
たまし
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana たまし, rōmaji tamashi)

  1. soul, spirit, mind

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
たましー
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana たましー, rōmaji tamashī)

  1. (religion) soul of the dead
    Antonym: まぶい

References[edit]

  • タマシ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
  • タマシー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hồn, hun, hùn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Japanese (tamashī)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana たまち, rōmaji tamachi)

  1. (religion) soul; spirit

References[edit]

  • たまち【魂】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.