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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
兄-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
兄-oracle.svg 兄-bronze.svg 兄-silk.svg 兄-bigseal.svg 兄-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 口竹山 (RHU), four-corner 60210, composition)

  1. elder brother

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 123, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 259, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 266, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5144

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕyŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕyŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕyŋ²¹/
Xining /ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /xỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕioŋ/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ³¹/
Hefei /xiŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
/ɕy¹³/ ~弟
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕioŋ³³/
Wenzhou /ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /ɕyɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɑŋ⁴²/
/ɕiuŋ⁴²/ 弟~
Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /heŋ⁵³/
Nanning /heŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /hiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ⁵/
/hia⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ⁵⁴/
/xiaŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hiã³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hia²³/
/hia⁵⁵/ ~兄

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hwɣiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hʷɯiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiuaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hwiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/xiuɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/xĭwɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯wɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjwæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥raŋ/
English elder brother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmraŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. elder brother
  2. elder male cousin
      ―  tángxiōng  ―  father’s brother’s son older than oneself
  3. brother (male friend of the same generation)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. elder brother

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あに, romaji ani)

  1. one's own elder brother
Synonyms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji e)

  1. an elder sibling

Etymology 3[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji se)

  1. a woman's brother
  2. a woman's lover or husband
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Compound of ‎(ko, child) + ‎(no, genitive case marker) + ‎(kami, upper).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana このかみ, romaji konokami)

  1. an elder sibling

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hyeong, hwang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: hyeong, hwang, McCune-Reischauer: hyŏng, hwang, Yale: hyeng, hwang)
  • Name (hangeul): , 두려워하다 (revised: hyeong, duryeowohada, McCune-Reischauer: hyŏng, turyŏwŏhada, Yale: hyeng, twuryewehata)
  1. elder brother
  2. fear, dread, be afraid of, stand in fear of, be frightened at, have a horror of

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(huynh)

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