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U+5144, 兄
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5144

[U+5143]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5145]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 10, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 口竹山 (RHU), four-corner 60210, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 123, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 259, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 266, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5144

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
兄-oracle.svg 兄-bronze.svg 兄-silk.svg 兄-seal.svg 兄-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*hmaŋʔ
*hmaŋs
*hmaŋs
*hmaŋs
*hmraŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hiaⁿ - vernacular;
  • heng - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕioŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ɕyoŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕioŋ²¹/
Xining /ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyoŋ/
Lanzhou /xỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕioŋ/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ³¹/
Hefei /xiŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕioŋ¹³/
/ɕy¹³/ ~弟
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕioŋ³³/
Wenzhou /ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /ɕyɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɑŋ⁴²/
/ɕiuŋ⁴²/ 弟~
Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /heŋ⁵³/
Nanning /heŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /hiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ⁵/
/hia⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ⁵⁴/
/xiaŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hiã³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hia²³/
/hia⁵⁵/ ~兄

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠwiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hʷᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiuaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hwiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/xiuɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/xĭwɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯wɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiōng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjwæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥raŋ/
English elder brother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmraŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. elder brother
  2. elder male cousin
      ―  tángxiōng  ―  father’s brother’s son older than oneself
  3. brother (male friend of the same generation)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. elder/older brother
  2. honorific referencing an older brother figure

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
けい
Grade: 2
kan’on

*/kˠwæi//kʷæi//keː/

From Middle Chinese (MC hˠwiæŋ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana けい, rōmaji kei)

  1. an elder brother
    Synonym: (tei)
Idioms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana けい, rōmaji kei)

  1. pronoun referencing an older brother figure: you, he

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana けい, rōmaji -kei)

  1. attaches to a name referencing an older brother figure: Mister, Mr.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あに
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese of unclear derivation:

  • Probably originally a compound of (a, Eastern Old Japanese first-person pronoun) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ye → e, eldest sibling, see below):
    ⟨a no2 ye⟩ → */anʉʲɨe//ani/
  • Alternatively, an apophonic form of (ane, elder sister), itself from the same derivation above, possibly by fusion with empathic particle (i).

(Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あに, rōmaji ani)

  1. one's own elder brother
    Antonym: (otōto)
  2. one's own elder sister's husband
    Synonym: 義兄 (gikei)
  3. Short for 花の兄 (hana no ani): alternative name for the (ume), the Japanese plum (Prunus mume)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. (archaic) the eldest sibling
    • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 16), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () (𛀁) () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      かつがつもいや先立 (さきだ)てる ()をし ()かむ [Modern spelling]
      katsugatsu mo iya sakidateru e o shi makamu
      If I have to choose, the one standing there in front―the eldest one I'll wed.[3]
    Antonym: (oto)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji se)

  1. (archaic) a woman's brother (regardless of age difference)
  2. (archaic) a woman's lover or husband
  3. (archaic) a familiar man
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
このかみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Originally a compound of (ko, child) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (kami, upper).[1][4]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana このかみ, rōmaji konokami)

  1. eldest son
    Synonyms: 長兄 (chōkei), 長男 (chōnan)
  2. a senior
    Synonym: 年長者 (nenchōsha)
  3. (by extension) an elder sibling
  4. the head of a clan
  5. a skilled craftsman
    Synonym: (kashira)
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup (Volume 1 of A Waka Anthology)‎[Stanford University Press], illustrated, reprint edition, →ISBN, page 17
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hyeong, hwang)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: hyeong, hwang, McCune–Reischauer: hyŏng, hwang, Yale: hyeng, hwang)
    • Name (hangeul): , 두려워하다 (revised: hyeong, duryeowohada, McCune–Reischauer: hyŏng, turyŏwŏhada, Yale: hyeng, twuryewehata)
  1. elder brother
  2. fear, dread, be afraid of, stand in fear of, be frightened at, have a horror of

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(huynh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.