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See also: and
U+91D1, 金
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91D1

[U+91D0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D2]
U+F90A, 金
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F90A

[U+F909]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F90B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
金-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (jīn) (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 167, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 金 (C), four-corner 80109, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠊍
𨤾
Wikipedia has articles on:
金的晶體

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
金-bronze.svg 金-seal.svg 金-bigseal.svg

Originally referred to copper. Later, the meaning was extended to the whole metal, and then to gold. Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *krɯm): semantic  (upside-down axe) + semantic  (two blocks of metal) + phonetic . is the ancient form for (OC *krɯm).

Etymology[edit]

Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gǝ̆m (metal); compare Tedim Chin xam (gold) and Lepcha [script needed] (kóm, silver, coin, money).

“Copper” [prior to 5th BCE] > “metals in general” > “gold”.

The main senses now are “gold” and “metal”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gim1 - Chaozhou;
  • ging1 - Chenghai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kim⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kim²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm⁵³/
    Nanning /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kim⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kim³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kim²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /kjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k(r)[ə]m/
    English metal, bronze

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6679
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*krɯm/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. copper (Cu)
    2. metal
        ―  jīn  ―  alloy
    3. metalware
    4. gold (Au)
      /   ―  jīnshǔ  ―  metal
      顏色黃銅相似 [MSC, trad.]
      颜色黄铜相似 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīn de yánsè hé huángtóng hěn xiāngsì. [Pinyin]
      Gold is similar in color to brass.
    5. golden; blond
      /   ―  jīn  ―  blond
      獎勵一塊 [MSC, trad.]
      奖励一块 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā bèi jiǎnglì le yīkuài jīn biǎo. [Pinyin]
      He received a golden watch as a prize.
    6. (by extension) money; material wealth
      /   ―  xiànjīn  ―  cash
      /   ―  jīn  ―  funds
      /   ―  jīnqián  ―  currency
    7. (historical) ancient currency unit
    8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
    9. (figuratively) sun
    10. (figuratively) moon
    11. (figuratively) respectful; noble; rich
    12. (figuratively) impregnable
    13. (figuratively) imperial
    14. (figuratively, of voice) beautiful; wonderful
    15. Short for 金星 (Jīnxīng, “Venus”).
    16. (~朝) (historical) The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
    17. (~朝, ) (historical) Synonym of 後金后金 (Hòujīn), the Jurchen Later Jin state (1616–1636)
    18. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (きん) (kin)
    • Korean: (, geum); (, gim)
    • Vietnamese: kim ()

    Others:

    • Bouyei: jiml (gold)
    • Lao: ຄຳ (kham, gold)
    • Thai: คำ (kam, gold)
    • Zhuang: gim (gold)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Chemical element
    Au
    Previous: (はっ)(きん) (hakkin) (Pt)
    Next: (すい)(ぎん) (suigin) (Hg)
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    (kane, kugane, kogane, kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
    (kane, kana, kin): Metal in general, such as metal sheeting.
    (kane, kana, kin): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.
    1. gold
    2. metal

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form of this word. In modern Japanese, only found at the start of compounds.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (かな) (kana-

    1. metal
    2. money
    3. firmness, strength
    4. completely, entirely
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

    Appears to be a fusion of kana + Old Japanese emphatic nominal particle (​i). Compare the development of modern kami from kamu + i at , te from ta + i at , me from ma + i at , kaze from kaza + i at .

    /kana/ + /i//*kanai//kane/

    The four kanji spellings of this term, (“gold”), (silver), (copper), and (iron), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かね) (kane

    1. money
      お金 (​okane)
    2. metal
    Usage notes[edit]

    The spelling is the most common for this term.

    Synonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Compound of (ku, yellow) +‎ (kane, metal). The ku is a variation of regular kun'yomi of ki for the character.[4] The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くがね) (kugane

    1. (archaic) gold

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kuɡane//koɡane/

    Alteration of kugane[4], possibly influenced by metaphor from 小金 (kogane, a small amount of money), or by the kan'on reading of for the character.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こがね) (kogane

    1. gold
    2. gold or metal currency: coins, such as 大判 (ōban) or 小判 (koban)
    3. short for 黄金色 (kogane iro, gold, the color)
    4. short for 黄金の泥 (kogane no dei, golden mud, gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration)
      金泥 (​kondei)
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim). Compare modern Mandarin (jīn).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きん) (kin

    1. gold (Au)
    2. money
      (きん)一封(いっぷう)をもらった。
      Kin ippū o moratta.
      I received a gift of money.
    3. metal
    4. (shogi) short for 金将 (kinshō): the gold general (a shogi piece)
    5. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia
    6. short for 金曜日 (kin'yōbi): Friday
    Usage notes[edit]

    Often found in compounds.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (きん) (Kin

    1. Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こん) (kon

    1. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3560), text here
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠiɪm). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kum) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (soe geum))

    1. Hanja form? of (gold; metal; money).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 사람 (saramui seong gim))

    1. Hanja form? of (a surname; used in placenames).
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4], ghim[3][5], câm[2], găm[3], ghim[4]

    1. Hán tự form of kim (gold; metal).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]