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U+5951, 契
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5951

[U+5950]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5952]
Uf909.svg
U+F909, 契
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F909

[U+F908]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F90A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 37, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 手竹大 (QHK), four-corner 57432, composition(GHTKV) or ⿱𭃌(J))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 251, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5917
  • Dae Jaweon: page 513, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 536, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5951

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
㓞-oracle.svg 㓞-bronze.svg 契-bronze-spring.svg 栔-silk.svg 契-slip.svg 契-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰeːds, *kʰeːd, *kʰeːd, *kʰɯd) and ideogrammic compound (會意): phonetic (to engrave) + semantic (person).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Exopassive of (OC *keːd, *kʰeːd, “to cut”): "what has been cut" (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou:
    • khòe - vernacular;
    • khè - literary.
  • (Teochew)

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰeiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰeiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰɛiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɛjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰeiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰieiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰieiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    kai3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khejH › ‹ khet ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[kʰ]ˁet-s/ /*kʰˁet/
    English script notches cut

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/4
    No. 6493
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰeːds/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. contract; deed
    2. to agree; to conform with; to tally with
    3. (literary) to carve; to engrave
    4. (literary) carved writing; engraved writing
    5. (Cantonese, Min Nan) adopted; adoptive; foster

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (58)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰɨt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɨt̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰi̯ət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hat1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 4/4
    No. 6519
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰɯd/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 契丹 (Qìdān, “the Khitans”).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Xie (ancestor of the kings of the Shang dynasty)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (87)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰet̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰet̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰɛt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɛt̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰet̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰiet̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰiet̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qie
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hit3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khet ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁet/
    English 契闊 hard-working (Ode 31.4)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/4 3/4
    No. 6511 6514
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2 2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰeːd/ /*kʰeːd/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in 契闊契阔 (qièkuò, “assiduous; separate; etc.”).
    2. Alternative form of (qiè, “to take; to carry”).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1][2][3]


    &#xF909;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
    Uf909.svg
    契󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    契󠄅
    +&#xE0105;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    契󠄂
    +&#xE0102;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    U5951-kyu.svg
    契󠄄
    +&#xE0104;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. pledge (allegiance)
    2. commit oneself
    3. promise (loyalty)

    Readings[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰeiH); compare Mandarin ():

    • Go-on: (ke)
    • Kan-on: けい (kei, Jōyō)

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰet̚); compare Mandarin (qiè):

    From Middle Chinese (MC set̚); compare Mandarin (xiè):

    From native Japanese roots:

    Compounds[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひさし) (Hisashi

    1. a male given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2022
    2. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 606 (paper), page 353 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
    3. ^ 1927, 新漢和辭典 (Shin Kanwa Jiten, “The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 386 (paper), page 206 (digital), Ōsaka: 松雲堂 (Shōundō)

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰeiH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [kje̞(ː)] ~ [ke̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 맺을 (maejeul gye))

    1. Hanja form? of (contract, bond; deed; engrave).
    2. Hanja form? of (a Korean rotating savings and credit association).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰet̚).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 애쓸 (aesseul gyeol))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (to be assiduous; to work hard; to toil).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰɨt̚).

    Historical readings

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 부족 이름 (bujok ireum geul))

    1. (historical) Hanja form? of (a tribe name).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC set̚).

    Historical readings

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum seol))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).
    2. (historical) Hanja form? of (Xie (ancestor of the kings of the Shang dynasty)).

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]
    • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin'guk Daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, Inmyeong-yong hanja-pyo), page 23. [4]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: khế, khé, khè, khía, khít, khẻ, khẽ, khịt

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.