toil

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See also: TOIL

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English toilen, toylen, apparently a conflation of Anglo-Norman toiller (to agitate, stir up, entangle) (compare Old Northern French tooillier, tooullier (to agitate, stir); of unknown origin), and Middle English tilyen, telien, teolien, tolen, tolien, tulien (to till, work, labour), from Old English tilian, telian, teolian, tiolian (to exert oneself, toil, work, make, generate, strive after, try, endeavor, procure, obtain, gain, provide, tend, cherish, cultivate, till, plough, trade, traffic, aim at, aspire to, treat, cure) (compare Middle Dutch tuylen, teulen (to till, work, labour)), from Proto-Germanic *tilōną (to strive, reach for, aim for, hurry). Cognate with Scots tulyie (to quarrel, flite, contend).

An alternate etymology derives Middle English toilen, toylen directly from Middle Dutch tuylen, teulen (to work, labour, till), from tuyl ("agriculture, labour, toil"; > Modern Dutch tuil (toil; work)). Cognate with Old Frisian teula (to labour, toil), teule (labour, work), Dutch tuil (toil, labour). Compare also Dutch telen (to grow; raise; cultivate, till). More at till.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /tɔɪl/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɔɪl, -ɔɪəl

Noun[edit]

toil (countable and uncountable, plural toils)

  1. Labour, work, especially of a grueling nature.
    Synonyms: derve, drudgery, swink; see also Thesaurus:drudgery
    • 1908, Kenneth Grahame, The Wind in the Willows:
      [] he set to work again and made the snow fly in all directions around him. After some further toil his efforts were rewarded, and a very shabby door-mat lay exposed to view.
  2. Trouble, strife.
  3. (usually in the plural) A net or snare; any thread, web, or string spread for taking prey.
    • 1697, Virgil, John Dryden, transl., Georgics:
      Then toils for beasts, and lime for birds, were found.
    • 1823, Mary Shelley, Frankenstein:
      I was like a wild beast that had broken the toils, destroying the objects that obstructed me and ranging through the wood with a stag-like swiftness.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

toil (third-person singular simple present toils, present participle toiling, simple past and past participle toiled)

  1. (intransitive) To labour; work.
  2. (intransitive) To struggle.
  3. (transitive) To work (something); often with out.
    • (Can we date this quote by Holland and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      places well toiled and husbanded
    • 1667, John Milton, “Book 10”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: Printed [by Samuel Simmons], and are to be sold by Peter Parker [] [a]nd by Robert Boulter [] [a]nd Matthias Walker, [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: The Text Exactly Reproduced from the First Edition of 1667: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, OCLC 230729554:
      [I] toiled out my uncouth passage.
  4. (transitive) To weary through excessive labour.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • toil” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2020.

Anagrams[edit]


Basque[edit]

Noun[edit]

toil

  1. conger eel

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish tol (will, desire).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

toil f (genitive singular tola)

  1. will

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
toil thoil dtoil
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

toil

  1. inflection of tol:
    1. accusative/dative singular
    2. nominative/vocative/accusative dual

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
toil thoil toil
pronounced with /d(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish tol (will, desire).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [t̪ɔl], /t̪ʰɔl/

Noun[edit]

toil f (genitive singular toile, plural toilean)

  1. will, desire, volition, inclination
  2. delight, pleasure

Phrases[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
toil thoil
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • toil” in Edward Dwelly, Faclair Gàidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan/The Illustrated [Scottish] Gaelic-English Dictionary, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited, 1911, →ISBN.
  • Gregory Toner, Maire Ní Mhaonaigh, Sharon Arbuthnot, Dagmar Wodtko, Maire-Luise Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “tol”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language