toil

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See also: TOIL

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English toilen, toylen, apparently a conflation of Anglo-Norman toiller (to agitate, stir up, entangle) (compare Old Northern French tooillier, tooullier (to agitate, stir); of unknown origin), and Middle English tilyen, telien, teolien, tolen, tolien, tulien (to till, work, labour), from Old English tilian, telian, teolian, tiolian (to exert oneself, toil, work, make, generate, strive after, try, endeavor, procure, obtain, gain, provide, tend, cherish, cultivate, till, plough, trade, traffic, aim at, aspire to, treat, cure) (compare Middle Dutch tuylen, teulen (to till, work, labour)), from Proto-Germanic *tilōną (to strive, reach for, aim for, hurry). Cognate with Scots tulyie (to quarrel, flite, contend).

An alternate etymology derives Middle English toilen, toylen directly from Middle Dutch tuylen, teulen (to work, labour, till), from tuyl ("agriculture, labour, toil"; > Modern Dutch tuil (toil; work)). Cognate with Old Frisian teula (to labour, toil), teule (labour, work), Dutch tuil (toil, labour). Compare also Dutch telen (to grow; raise; cultivate, till). More at till.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɔɪl, -ɔɪəl

Noun[edit]

toil (countable and uncountable, plural toils)

  1. labour, work, especially of a grueling nature
    • 1908, Kenneth Grahame, The Wind in the Willows
      ...he set to work again and made the snow fly in all directions around him. After some further toil his efforts were rewarded, and a very shabby door-mat lay exposed to view.
  2. trouble, strife
  3. A net or snare; any thread, web, or string spread for taking prey; usually in the plural.
    • 1697, John Dryden, translating Virgil's Georgics
      Then toils for beasts, and lime for birds, were found.
    • 1823, Mary Shelley, Frankenstein
      I was like a wild beast that had broken the toils, destroying the objects that obstructed me and ranging through the wood with a stag-like swiftness.

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

toil (third-person singular simple present toils, present participle toiling, simple past and past participle toiled)

  1. (intransitive) To labour; work.
  2. (intransitive) To struggle.
  3. (transitive) To work (something); often with out.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Holland
      places well toiled and husbanded
    • (Can we date this quote?) John Milton
      [I] toiled out my uncouth passage.
  4. (transitive) To weary through excessive labour.

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Basque[edit]

Noun[edit]

toil

  1. conger eel

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish tol (will, desire).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

toil f (genitive singular tola)

  1. will

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
toil thoil dtoil
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • tol” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.
  • “toil” in Foclóir Gaeḋilge agus Béarla, Irish Texts Society, 2nd ed., 1927, by Patrick S. Dinneen.
  • "toil" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish tol (will, desire).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [t̪ɔl], /t̪ʰɔl/

Noun[edit]

toil f (genitive singular toile, plural toilean)

  1. will, desire, volition, inclination
  2. delight, pleasure

Phrases[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
toil thoil
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • Faclair Gàidhlig Dwelly Air Loidhne, Dwelly, Edward (1911), Faclair Gàidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan/The Illustrated [Scottish] Gaelic-English Dictionary (10th ed.), Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited, →ISBN
  • tol” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.