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U+5BD2, 寒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BD2

[U+5BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BD3]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 40, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十廿金卜 (JTCY), four-corner 30303, composition𡨄)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 289, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7239
  • Dae Jaweon: page 572, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 941, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5BD2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
寒-bronze.svg 寒-seal.svg 寒-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡaːn
*kranʔ, *kanʔ
*kranʔ
*kranʔ, *kʰran
*kranʔ
*kʰran
*kʰran
*kʰran
*ɡranʔ
*ɡanʔ
*qʰan

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (person) +  (grass) – a person in a house, sleeping in the grass to protect from the cold. In some bronze inscriptions, is added at the bottom of the character; this may simply be decorative or may represent a mat. In the seal script, is changed to (“ice”) to emphasize its meaning of coldness.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hàng - “cold; poor; to fear”;
  • gàng - “affected by the cold; chilled”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hân - literary;
    • kôaⁿ - vernacular;
    • gân - vernacular (俗).
    Note:
    • hang5 - literary;
    • guan5 - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ han ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.[ɡ]ˁa[n]/
    English cold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4870
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. cold; wintry; chilly
    2. poor; poverty-stricken
    3. humble; petty and low
    4. desolate; deserted
    5. dreary; miserable
    6. withered; limp
    7. (humble) my
    8. to feel cold
    9. to fear; to dread
    10. winter
    11. cold weather; cold day or night
    12. (traditional Chinese medicine) cold; chill
    13. The fourteenth day of the month in Chinese telegraph messages

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (cold): (lěng)
    Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan , 冷凊
    Chengdu ,
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou ,
    Hong Kong ,
    Taishan
    Yangjiang ,
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) ,
    Liudui (S. Sixian) , 寒人
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu) ,
    Hsinchu (Raoping) ,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou ,
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen , ,
    Quanzhou , ,
    Zhangzhou , ,
    Taipei , ,
    Penang ,
    Philippines (Manila) ,
    Chaozhou ,
    Shantou ,
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou ,
    Xiang Changsha ,
    Shuangfeng ,

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. cold

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (han)

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hàn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.