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U+5BD2, 寒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BD2

[U+5BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BD3]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 40, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十廿金卜 (JTCY), four-corner 30303, composition𡨄)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 289, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7239
  • Dae Jaweon: page 572, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 941, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5BD2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
寒-bronze.svg 寒-seal.svg 寒-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (house) + (person) + (grass) – a person in a house, sleeping in the grass to protect from the cold. In some bronze inscriptions, is added at the bottom of the character; this may simply be decorative or may represent a mat. In the seal script, is changed to (“ice”) to emphasize its meaning of coldness.

Etymology[edit]

Etymology unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hàng - “cold; poor; to fear”;
  • gàng - “affected by the cold; chilled”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hân - literary;
    • kôaⁿ - vernacular;
    • gân - vernacular (俗).
    Note:
    • hang5 - literary;
    • guan5 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hon4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ han ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.[ɡ]ˁa[n]/
    English cold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4870
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. cold; wintry; chilly
    2. poor; poverty-stricken
    3. humble; petty and low
    4. desolate; deserted
    5. dreary; miserable
    6. withered; limp
    7. (humble) my
        ―  hánshè  ―  (one's own) humble home
    8. to feel cold
    9. to fear; to dread
    10. winter
    11. cold weather; cold day or night
    12. (traditional Chinese medicine) cold; chill
    13. (telegraphy) the fourteenth day of a month

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (cold): (lěng)

    Compounds[edit]

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. cold

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑn).

    The basic cold sense as an affix is attested from some of the earliest texts in the 700s C.E..[1] Use as an independent noun is first attested in a text from roughly 900 C.E..[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. [from 700s] cold, chilly
    2. [from early 1800s] (by extension) poor, poverty-stricken
    3. [from 900s] midwinter, cold season

    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. [from circa 900] cold, coldness
    2. [from 1275] midwinter, cold season
      • a haiku by Matsuo Bashō:
        (かん)(ざけ)も (くう)()(やせ)も (かん)(うち)
        kanzake mo Kūya no yase mo kan no uchi
        Salted salmon too, also Kūya's thinning too, in the cold season

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: han) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (chal han))

    1. Hanja form? of (cold; chilly).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: hàn (()(can)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: hàn[1][2][4][6]

    1. Hán tự form of hàn (coldness).

    References[edit]