From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+5BD2, 寒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BD2

[U+5BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BD3]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 40, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十廿金卜 (JTCY), four-corner 30303, composition 𡨄(GTJV) or 𡨄(K))

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 289, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7239
  • Dae Jaweon: page 572, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 941, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5BD2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡫾
𡫜
𡫮

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (house) + (person) + (grass) – a person in a house, sleeping in the grass to protect from the cold. In some bronze inscriptions, is added at the bottom of the character; this may simply be decorative or may represent a mat. In the seal script, is changed to (“ice”) to emphasize its meaning of coldness.

Contrast 宿.

Etymology[edit]

Unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hàng - “cold; poor; to fear”;
  • gàng - “affected by the cold; chilled”.
Note:
  • hân - literary;
  • kôaⁿ - vernacular;
  • gân - vernacular (俗).
Note:
  • hang5 - literary;
  • guan5 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter han
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦan/
Li
Rong
/ɣɑn/
Wang
Li
/ɣɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hon4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hán
Middle
Chinese
‹ han ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.[ɡ]ˁa[n]/
English cold

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4870
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡaːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cold; wintry; chilly
  2. poor; poverty-stricken
  3. humble; petty and low
  4. desolate; deserted
  5. dreary; miserable
  6. withered; limp
  7. (humble) my
      ―  hánshè  ―  (one's own) humble home
  8. to feel cold
  9. to fear; to dread
  10. winter
  11. cold weather; cold day or night
  12. (traditional Chinese medicine) cold; chill
  13. (~日) (telegraphy) the fourteenth day of a month

Synonyms[edit]

  • (cold): (lěng)

Compounds[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]

寒󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
寒󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. cold

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: 3
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC han).

The basic cold sense as an affix is attested from some of the earliest texts in the 700s CE.[2] Use as an independent noun is first attested in a text from roughly 900 CE.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(かん) (kan

  1. [from 700s] cold, chilly
  2. [from early 1800s] (by extension) poor, poverty-stricken
  3. [from 900s] midwinter, cold season

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かん) (kan

  1. [from circa 900] cold, coldness
  2. [from 1275] midwinter, cold season
    • a haiku by Matsuo Bashō:
      (かん)(ざけ)も (くう)()(やせ)も (かん)(うち)
      kanzake mo Kūya no yase mo kan no uchi
      Salted salmon too, also Kūya's thinning too, in the cold season

References[edit]

  1. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 685 (paper), page 392 (digital)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC han). Recorded as Middle Korean (han) (Yale: han) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (chal han))

  1. Hanja form? of (cold; chilly).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: hàn (()(can)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: hàn[1][2][4][6]

  1. chữ Hán form of hàn (coldness).

References[edit]