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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
冷-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 15 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 戈一人戈戈 (IMOII), four-corner 38127, composition)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 132, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1622
  • Dae Jaweon: page 295, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 296, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+51B7

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
冷-bigseal.svg 冷-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *raːŋʔ, *reːŋ, *reːŋʔ): semantic  ‎(ice) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs) – cold as ice.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ləŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ləŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /ləŋ¹³/
Jinan /ləŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ləŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ləŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /ləŋ⁵³/
Xining /lə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /ləŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lə̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /lɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən⁴²/
Chengdu /nən⁵³/
Guiyang /nen⁴²/
Kunming /lə̃/
Nanjing /lən²¹²/
Hefei /lən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ləŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /ləŋ⁵³/
/liɑ⁵³/
Hohhot /lə̃ŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /lã¹³/
Suzhou /lã³¹/
Hangzhou /len⁵³/
Wenzhou /liɛ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃³⁵/
/lɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /lɛ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lən⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nən⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lɑŋ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /laŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /lɑŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /laŋ²³/
Nanning /laŋ²⁴/
Hong Kong /laŋ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lɛiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /laiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nẽ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /leŋ²¹³/
/lɛ²¹³/
/lɛ³¹/ 晾乾
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (125)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: líng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leŋ/ /leŋ/ /lɛŋ/ /lɛjŋ/ /leŋ/ /lieŋ/ /lieŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (109)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lěng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɣæŋX/ /lɯaŋX/ /laŋX/ /laɨjŋX/ /lɐŋX/ /lɐŋX/ /lɐŋX/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (125)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lǐng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leŋX/ /leŋX/ /lɛŋX/ /lɛjŋX/ /leŋX/ /lieŋX/ /lieŋX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8276 0 /*raːŋʔ/
8317 0 /*reːŋ/
8330 0 /*reːŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cold, cool

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(raeng>naeng) (hangeul >, McCune-Reischauer raeng>naeng)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lãnh, lạnh, lênh, liểng, linh, rãnh, lành, lảnh, rảnh)

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