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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
命-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
命-oracle.svg 命-bronze.svg 命-silk.svg 命-bigseal.svg 命-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  +  ‎(order)

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人一口中 (OMRL), four-corner 80627, composition)

  1. life
  2. destiny, fate, luck
  3. an order, instruction

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 183, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3473
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 604, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+547D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mˠiæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/mᵚiaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/miaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/miajŋH/
Li
Rong
/miɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/mĭɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjængH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-riŋ-s/ (dialect: *m-r- > *mr-, *-iŋ> *-eŋ)
English command (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8275
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mreŋs/
Notes

Noun[edit]

  1. life   (Classifier: m c)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いのち
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably a compound of Old Japanese elements ‎(i, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) +‎ ‎(no, possessive particle) +‎ ‎(chi, spirit, force, soul).

Some analyses describe this as a compound using ‎(i, life, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) as the initial semantic element. This is equally valid, as ‎(iki) and 生き ‎(iki) are cognates.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いのち, romaji inochi)

  1. life
  2. lifespan
  3. lifetime
  4. fate, destiny
  5. (figuratively) the most important part or aspect of a thing
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
みこと
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of ‎(mi, honorific prefix) +‎ ‎(koto, word).[2] The mi prefix is generally limited to extremely high-status contexts such as gods or emperors.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana みこと, romaji mikoto)

  1. the words or pronouncements of a god or an emperor

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
みこと
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of ‎(mi, honorific prefix) +‎ ‎(koto, abstract thing, as opposed to , mono, “concrete thing”).[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana みこと, romaji mikoto)

  1. the honorable, the exalted
    Used as a title after the referenced noun when referring to gods, emperors, or other high-status persons.
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
      夜知富許能 迦微能美許登
      八千矛の神の
      やちほこのかみのみこと
      Yachihoko no kami no mikoto wa
      the honorable god Yachihoko
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book Book 20, No. 4408, poem {{{2}}})
      波々蘇婆能 波々能美許等波
      柞葉の母の
      ははそばのははのみこと
      hahasoba no haha no mikoto wa
      the exalted mother of the oak leaf
  2. the beloved, dearly beloved
    Similarly used as a title after the referenced noun.
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
      和加久佐能 都麻能美許登
      若草の妻の
      わかくさのつまのみこと
      Wakakusa no tsuma no mikoto
      dearly beloved young wife

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana みこと, romaji mikoto)

  1. you
  2. that person
Usage notes[edit]

Used ironically from the late Heian period, expressing a sense of mild derision or ridicule.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
めい
Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(mjængH, command). Compare modern Mandarin ‎(mìng, life, destiny, instruction).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana めい, romaji mei)

  1. fate, destiny
  2. life, lifespan
  3. order, command
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(myeong) (hangeul , revised myeong, McCune-Reischauer myŏng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(mệnh, mạng, mình, mạnh, mịnh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.