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See also:
U+547D, 命
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-547D

[U+547C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+547E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人一口中 (OMRL), four-corner 80627, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 183, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3473
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 604, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+547D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠇮

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
命-oracle.svg 命-bronze.svg 命-silk.svg 命-seal.svg 命-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs
*riːn, *reːŋ
*riːŋ, *reːŋ, *reːŋs
魿 *ɡriŋ, *reːŋ
*mreŋs
*raːŋʔ, *reːŋ, *reːŋʔ
*reŋ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ
*reŋʔ
*reŋʔ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ
*reŋs, *reːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ, *reːŋʔ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mreŋs): semantic  (mouth) + phonetic  (OC *ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Related to (OC *ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs, “to order; to command; order”) (Wang, 1982). Both may be derived from (OC *meŋ, “name”): “name” () > “to name; to give (a name to)” () > “to order; to command” > “order; command” > “destiny; fate; lot” > “life” (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • meng6 - vernacular;
  • ming6 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • miang - vernacular;
    • min - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • miâng - vernacular;
    • mêng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • miā - vernacular;
    • bēng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /miajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /miɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mìng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mìng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjængH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-riŋ-s/ (dialect: *m-r- > *mr-, *-iŋ> *-eŋ)
    English command (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8275
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mreŋs/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. life; existence; state of living (Classifier: m c)
    2. lifespan; life expectancy
    3. destiny; fate; luck
    4. order; command; instruction
    5. to order; to command
    6. to give (a title, name to); to name

    Synonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    • 生活 (shēnghuó, “(personal aspects of) life”)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いのち
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Probably a compound of Old Japanese elements (i, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (chi, spirit, force, soul).

    Some analyses describe this as a compound using (i, life, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) as the initial semantic element. This is equally valid, as (iki) and 生き (iki) are cognates.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いのち, rōmaji inochi)

    1. life
       (いのち) (おん) (じん)
      inochi no onjin
      person to whom one owes their life
    2. lifespan
    3. lifetime
    4. fate, destiny
    5. (figuratively) the most important part or aspect of a thing
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みこと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (koto, word).[2] The mi prefix is generally limited to extremely high-status contexts such as gods or emperors.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

    1. the words or pronouncements of a god or an emperor

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みこと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (koto, abstract thing, as opposed to , mono, “concrete thing”).[2][1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

    1. the honorable, the exalted
      Used as a title after the referenced noun when referring to gods, emperors, or other high-status persons.
      • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
        夜知富許能 迦微能美許登
        八千矛の神の
        やちほこのかみのみこと
        Yachihoko no kami no mikoto wa
        the honorable god Yachihoko
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book Book 20, No. 4408, poem {{{2}}})
        波々蘇婆能 波々能美許等波
        柞葉の母の
        ははそばのははのみこと
        hahasoba no haha no mikoto wa
        the exalted mother of the oak leaf
    2. the beloved, dearly beloved
      Similarly used as a title after the referenced noun.
      • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
        和加久佐能 都麻能美許登
        若草の妻の
        わかくさのつまのみこと
        Wakakusa no tsuma no mikoto
        dearly beloved young wife

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

    1. you
    2. that person
    Usage notes[edit]

    Used ironically from the late Heian period, expressing a sense of mild derision or ridicule.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    めい
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (mjængH, command). Compare modern Mandarin (mìng, life, destiny, instruction).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana めい, rōmaji mei)

    1. fate, destiny
    2. life, lifespan
    3. order, command
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (myeong) (hangeul , revised myeong, McCune–Reischauer myŏng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (mệnh, mạng, mình, mạnh, mịnh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.