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U+5B57, 字
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B57

[U+5B56]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B58]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
字-order.gif
Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 39, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十弓木 (JND), four-corner 30407, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 277, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6942
  • Dae Jaweon: page 545, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1010, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5B57

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
字-bronze-shang.svg 字-bronze.svg 字-bronze-spring.svg 字-slip.svg 字-seal.svg 字-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zlɯs): semantic (roof) + phonetic (OC *ʔslɯʔ, child).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsa ~ za (child; to give birth; to take care; to be kind). Related to:

  • (OC *ʔslɯʔ, “child, son”) (also its phonetic component)
  • (OC *zɯ, “to be kind, loving”)
  • (OC *ʔsɯ, “to nourish, to grow”)
  • (OC *ljɯ, “word, term”)
  • (OC *ljɯ, “word, from testimony”)

Original sense (1): “to become pregnant, to give birth to, to nurture, to love” has essentially become obsolete. The sense (2) “letter, character” is either from a different root or a derivation from the sense “to produce, to generate”.

Cognate with Tibetan ཚ་བོ (tsha bo, nephew), Tibetan ཚ་རུས (tsha rus, descendant), Tibetan བཙའ (btsa', to give birth to; to guard), Tibetan མཛའ (mdza', kind, peaceful, friendly) (Quan, 1996).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lī/jī/lǐ/gī - vernacular;
  • chū/chīr/jū - literary.
Note: re6 - Chinese-style name, “to be allow to marry”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡sz̩⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡sz̩⁵³/
Tianjin /ye⁵³/
Jinan /t͡sz̩²¹/
Qingdao /t͡sz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sz̩³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sz̩⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sz̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡sz̩¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡sz̩¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡sz̩²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /t͡sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /t͡sz̩²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sz̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡sz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡sz̩³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩²²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰz̩²²/
Tunxi /t͡sʰz̩¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
/t͡sz̩¹¹/
Xiangtan /d͡zz̩²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰz̩²¹/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /sï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡si²²/
Nanning /t͡sz̩²²/
Hong Kong /t͡si²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡su²²/
/li²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zi³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡si³³/
/tu²³/ 訓書

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zɨH/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziəH/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dziH ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-dzə(ʔ)-s/
English breed, love (v.); character

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17864
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zlɯs/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Chinese character; hanzi (Classifier: ;  c)
    這個怎麼 / 这个怎么  ―  Zhège zěnme niàn?  ―  How do you read this character?
  2. word; term; wording; diction
    /   ―  Zhè pīn cuò le.  ―  This word is wrongly spelt; you've left out a letter.
  3. (computing) word
  4. handwriting; writing
      ―  Tā de hěn chà.  ―  His handwriting is very bad.
  5. (historical) courtesy name; Chinese-style name (a name traditionally given to Chinese males at the age of 20 and females at the age of 15)
  6. (historical) to style; to give someone a courtesy name
  7. letter; symbol; character
      ―    ―  letter
      ―  chuàn  ―  character string
  8. (calligraphy) style of handwriting; printing type
  9. (calligraphy) (a calligrapher's) calligraphy work
  10. written letter; message; correspondence
  11. receipt; contract; slip
  12. pronunciation of a character; pronunciation
  13. (colloquial) tails (side of the coin)
  14. (Cantonese, Min, Malaysia, Singapore) five minutes (derived from the locations of 1 to 12 on a clock face) (Classifier: m c)
    / [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 go3 zi6 [Jyutping]  ―  fifteen minutes [i.e. when the minute hand points to 3]
    / [Hokkien]  ―  chhit tiám nn̄g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  ten past seven
    / [Teochew]  ―  zêg8 gai5 ri7 [Peng'im]  ―  five minutes [i.e. when the minute hand points to 1]
    而家十一 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    而家十一 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    ji4 gaa1 hai6 jat1 dim2 sap6 jat1 go3 zi6. [Jyutping]
    It's five to two now. (Literally: It's one o'clock [and] eleven five-minutes.)
    [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    zaang1 saam1 go3 zi6 dou3 luk6 dim2 [Jyutping]
    a quarter to six (Literally: Missing three five-minutes to six o'clock)
  15. to give birth to; to deliver a baby; to bring into the world
  16. to be pregnant; to be carrying a baby
  17. (historical, of a girl) to be betrothed; to be allowed to marry
    閨中 / 闺中  ―  dàiguīzhōng  ―  to stay in the boudoir waiting to be betrothed
  18. to bring up; to raise; to rear (a child)
  19. (obsolete or Guzhang Waxiang) to love; to cherish; to care very much for
  20. (Luxi Waxiang) to envy; to be jealous of; to admire
  21. to educate; to teach; to instruct
  22. to govern; to administer
  23. A surname.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ji)
  • Korean: (, ja)
  • Vietnamese: tự ()

Others:

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on’yomi

Borrowed from Middle Chinese with the southern pronunciation (kango, Go-on).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (ji

  1. letter, character
    この()(なん)()ますか?
    Kono ji wa nan to yomimasu ka?
    How do you pronounce this character?
  2. handwriting, penmanship
    (かの)(じょ)()上手(うま)(きたな))。
    Kanojo wa ji ga umai (kitanai).
    She has good (bad) handwriting.
Derived terms[edit]

Counter[edit]

() (-ji

  1. letters, characters
    40(よんじゅう)()()(ない)()てください。
    Yonjū-ji inai de kaite kudasai.
    Please write it down in 40 characters or fewer.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あざ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Shortened form of あざな (azana, a section of a village) of ancient Japanese origin (wago).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(あざ) (aza

  1. a section of a village
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
あざな
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Of ancient Japanese origin (wago).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(あざな) (azana

  1. courtesy name
    たく(ぐん)河北(かほくしょう))の(ひと)(あざな)玄徳(げんとく)[2]
    Takugun (Kahoku-shō) no hito. Azana wa Gentoku.
    Of Zhuo Commandery. Courtesy name Xuande.
  2. nickname
  3. a section of a village

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɨH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 글자 (geulja ja))

  1. Hanja form? of (letter; character).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tự, chữ

  1. character, letter
  2. word

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển, Hà Nội, 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999

Compounds[edit]