Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/tsa ~ za

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Not to be confused with *tsa (salt).
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tsa (Chou, 1972); *tsjəɣ ~ dzjəɣ (Coblin, 1986), *tsə (Schuessler, 2007)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *tsa-n ~ za-n ("child"), *m-dza-k ("to love") (Matisoff, STEDT); *za (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987); *tsa ⪤ *za (LaPolla, 1987)


*tsa ~ za

  1. child, son, offspring; grandson; relatives; nephew/niece


*tsa ~ za

  1. to come forth (as child at birth) - perhaps the original meaning
  2. (prenasalised) to love, to be loving


  • Old Chinese:
    (*tsəʔ (B-S), *ʔslɯʔ (B-S), child)
    ~ , (*tsˁəʔ (B-S, unlisted), *ʔslɯːʔ, *srɯː (B-S), (Southern dialect) child)
    (*mə-dzə(ʔ)-s (B-S), *zlɯ (B-S), to bear; to give birth; to breed; to love; character)

       Burmese:  စာ (ca, writing, letter, paper, document)
          Vietnamese:  chữ (writing, letter)

    (*dzə, *zɯ, loving, kind)
    (*tsə, *ʔsɯ, to grow, to breed, to propagate, to bring about, to increase)
    (*tsə, *dzə unlisted, *ʔsɯ, *zɯ, to breed, to propagate)
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions: 子-bronze.svg - "child}}
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions: 字-bronze.svg - "child under roof > to bear, to give birth}}
    • Middle Chinese: (t͡sɨX), , (t͡sʌiX), (d͡zɨH), (d͡zɨ), , (t͡sɨ)

         Japanese:   (, ​shi)
            Korean:   (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tử

         Japanese:   (, ​ji)
            Korean:   (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tự

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /t͡sz̩²¹⁴/, "child; diminutive"), , (zǎi, /t͡saɪ̯²¹⁴/, "young animal"), (, /t͡sz̩⁵¹/, "character"), (, /t͡sʰz̩³⁵/, "kind"), , (, /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/, "to breed")
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: fa (offspring, child; nephew, niece)
  • Himalayish
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: သား (sa:, son, child, offspring), စာ (ca, to have tender regard for, to feel for)
      • Loloish
        /*ʒa²/ (Hansson, 1989)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): ꍶꌺ (chyt sse, baby goat)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Northern): ꓤꓽ (, son, offspring)

See also[edit]