Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan:
    *sring ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman:
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-raŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Benedict, 1972) - later modified to *śriŋ, explaining the ‑a‑ in Written Burmese hraŋ as being "conditioned by the initial cluster".
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-rɑŋ ("live, bear, be born, fresh (e.g. greens)"), *śriŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Chou, 1972)
      *s-ring(*A) ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
      *s-riŋ, *s-raŋ ("live") (Weidert, 1987)
      *śriN ("live") (Michailovsky, 1991)
      *s-riŋ ⪤ *s-r(y)aŋ ("live, alive, green, raw, give birth") (Matisoff, STEDT)

A well-attested root, (in particular) with its parallel allofams reflected in Chinese in different forms, including the original vocalism variation *‑a‑ ⪤ *‑i‑ and/or forms lacking medial *r. Schuessler (2007) argued that this was originally a ST terminative final * derivation from PST *sri (to be, exist), hence literally "come into existence → give birth → live". The original etymon perhaps survives in Chinese as (Old Chinese /*r̥ˁijʔ/, "body, limbs").

The allofam *siŋ appears identical in form to PST *siŋ ~ sik (tree); the two are perhaps related (Schuessler, 2007). The Chinese reflex of the latter () is homophonic with ("new").


*s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ

  1. to live
  2. alive
  3. green
  4. raw
  5. to give birth


  • Old Chinese:
    (*sreŋ, sreŋ-s, to live; to be born; to bear), (*ɴ-sreŋ, fresh, raw (B-S); *sl̥eːŋ, sreŋs (ZS))
    (in the oracle bone script) 生-oracle.svg
    (*sreŋ (B-S; unlisted, theoretical); *sreŋ (ZS), a (live) sacrificial animal)
    (*ɴ-sˁ‹r›eŋ (B-S); *sl̥eːŋ (ZS), blue-green)

       Vietnamese:  xanh (blue, green)

    (*t͡sʰˁaŋ (B-S); *sʰaːŋ (ZS), deep blue-green) (< *k-saŋ? (Schuessler, 2007))
    (*seŋ-s (B-S); *sleŋs (ZS), nature (of man))
    (*seŋ-s (B-S); *sleŋs (ZS), surname)
    (*ʔsleŋ (ZS), luxuriant)
    and perhaps (*dzeŋ (B-S); *zleŋ (ZS), emotion, nature)
    • Middle Chinese: (ʃɣæŋ, ʃɣæŋH/), (ʃɣæŋ/), (t͡sʰeŋ/), (t͡sʰɑŋ/), , (siᴇŋH/), (t͡siᴇŋ/), (d͡ziᴇŋ/)

         Japanese:   (せい, ​sei)
            Korean:   (, saeng)
            Vietnamese:  sinh, sanh

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: , (shēng, /ʂɤŋ⁵⁵/), (qīng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ⁵⁵/), (cāng, /t͡sʰɑŋ⁵⁵/), , (xìng, /ɕiŋ⁵¹/), (jīng, /t͡ɕiŋ⁵⁵/), (qíng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ³⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གསིང་མ (gsing ma, pastureland, meadow with green grass)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese

See also[edit]