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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(heart) + phonetic  – nature, personal quality, hence of the heart.

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 心竹手一 (PHQM), four-corner 95010, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 381, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10478
  • Dae Jaweon: page 710, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2286, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6027

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (16)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/siᴇŋH/ /si̯ɛŋH/ /siɛŋH/ /siɛŋH/ /siajŋH/ /sĭɛŋH/ /siæŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xìng ‹ sjengH › /*seŋ-s/ nature

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11358 0 /*sleŋs/

Noun[edit]

  1. nature, character
  2. sex, gender

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. one's nature
  2. characteristic
  3. sex, gender
  4. content

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(sjengH, nature of something, inherent quality).

The goon, so the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しょう, romaji shō, historical hiragana しやう)

  1. the nature of something

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(sjengH, nature of something, inherent quality).

The kan'on, so a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana せい, romaji sei)

  1. sex, gender
  2. (grammar) gender
Synonyms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. -ity, -ness, the nature of quality or something

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
さが
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

Probably from Old Japanese, although the ultimate derivation is unknown. Appears in The Tale of Genji and The Tales of Ise of the Heian period.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さが, romaji saga)

  1. one's nature
  2. characteristic
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(seong) (hangeul , revised seong, McCune-Reischauer sŏng, Yale seng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tính, dính, tánh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.