Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+76F8, 相
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-76F8

[U+76F7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+76F9]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 109, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 木月山 (DBU), four-corner 46900, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 800, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23151
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1216, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2470, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+76F8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (tree) + (eye) – looking at, or watching the tree.

Etymology[edit]

An allofam is (OC *sŋa, *sŋaʔ, “each other; mutually; all; to observe; to assist”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Derivative: (OC *slaŋʔ, “to think”) (“appearance > to visualise > to think”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • siong/siang - literary;
  • saⁿ/sio/sa - vernacular;
  • siuⁿ/sioⁿ - vernacular (limited, e.g. 相思).
Note:
  • siang1 - literary;
  • sio1/siê1 - vernacular (siê1 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /siaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiāng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    soeng1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[s]aŋ/
    English mutually

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13579
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*slaŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to see for oneself; to evaluate by seeing for oneself
      女婿  ―  xiāng nǚxù  ―  assess the suitability of a prospective son-in-law or husband
    2. mutually; reciprocally; towards each other; one another
        ―  xiāngwàng  ―  to look at each other
        ―  xiāngféng  ―  to meet by chance
    3. together; jointly
    4. successively; one after another
    5. towards; to
    6. A surname.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • soeng3-2 - “photo; picture”.
    Note:
    • lhiang1* - “photo; picture”.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • siòng/siàng - literary;
    • siùⁿ/siòⁿ/siàuⁿ - vernacular.
    Note:
    • siang3 - literary;
    • sion3/siên3 - vernacular (siên3 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    soeng3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sjangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[s]aŋ-s/
    English appearance, quality

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13586
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*slaŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to look at; to examine the appearance and judge; to observe
    2. looks; appearance; features
      /   ―  zhǎngxiàng  ―  facial features
    3. posture; bearing
        ―  zhànxiàng  ―  standing posture
    4. demeanour; manners
        ―  chīxiàng  ―  table manners
    5. photo; picture; photograph (Classifier: c;  c)
      / [Cantonese]  ―  jing2 gei2 zoeng1 soeng3-2 [Jyutping]  ―  to take a few pictures
    6. phase; exterior; stage; period
    7. (physics) phase
      空間 / 空间  ―  xiàngkōngjiān  ―  phase space
        ―  xiàngwèi  ―  phase
        ―  yuèxiàng  ―  lunar phase
    8. (geology) facies
    9. to physiognomise; to practise physiognomy; to tell fortune by reading the subject's facial features
    10. physiognomy; practice of physiognomy
    11. to choose; to pick
    12. to assist; to help; to oversee
    13. (historical) Chancellor of State
    14. (xiangqi) minister (on the red side)
    15. (historical) master of ceremonies
    16. (historical) attendant
    17. to administer; to govern
    18. to teach; to instruct
    19. a person who guides or leads a blind person
    20. A surname.
    Synonyms[edit]
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mutual, reciprocal, with one another
    2. appearance, look

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あい
    [prefix] mutual, together, each other
    [prefix] used in official or epistolary writings for elegance or politeness
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こもごも
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    こもごも
    [adverb] alternating; one after another
    [adverb] all mixed up and indistinct
    Alternative spellings
    交々, , ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さが
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (さが) (saga

    1. nature, personality
    2. fate, destiny
    3. a habit, custom, or practice
    4. the good and bad of a person; especially, one's faults
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (together, with), from the way that a minister would always be with their lord. Kan'on, so likely a later borrowing than the reading.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (しょう) (-shōしゃう (syau)?

    1. minister of state
      (しゅ)(しょう)
      shushō
      prime minister
      (ない)(しょう)
      naishō
      minister of the interior
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そう
    Grade: 3
    goon

    From Middle Chinese. Goon, so likely an earlier borrowing than the shō reading.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (そう) (さう (sau)?

    1. appearance, how something looks
    2. an aspect of something
      (だい)()(ぜん)色々(いろいろ)(そう)
      daishizen no iroiro na
      various aspects of nature
    3. (grammar) grammatical aspect
    4. (physics) a phase, as of matter
    5. (ikebana) the central supporting branch of an ikebana arrangement
    Related terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɨɐŋ, “mutual; together”).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ (Yale: syàng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 서르 샤ᇰ[2] Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ (Yale: syàng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.[1]
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Final (韻) Reading
    Samun Seonghwi, 1751 서ᄅᆞ Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: syang) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.
    1. ^ Identical eumhun in Gwangju Cheonjamun and Sinjeung Yuhap.
    2. ^ 本平聲 [Level tone]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 서로 (seoro sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (mutual; together).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɨɐŋH, “appearance”).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ〮 (Yale: syáng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] ᄌᆡ〯샤ᇰ〮[1] 샤ᇰ〮 Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ〮 (Yale: syáng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Final (韻) Reading
    Samun Seonghwi, 1751 졍승[2] Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: syang) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.
    1. ^ 宰相 [Chancellor of State]
    2. ^ 政丞 [Minister]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 바탕 (batang sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (looks; appearance).
    2. Hanja form? of (minister of state).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: tương

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.