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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 109 +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 木月山 (DBU), four-corner 46900, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 800, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23151
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1216, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2470, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+76F8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(tree) +  ‎(eye) – looking at, or watching the tree.

Etymology[edit]

An allofam is (OC *sŋa, *sŋaʔ, “each other; mutually; all; to observe; to assist”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Derivative: (OC *slaŋʔ, “to think”) (“appearance > to visualise > to think”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/siaŋ/
Wang
Li
/sĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiāng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]aŋ/
English mutually

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 13579
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slaŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to see for oneself; to evaluate by seeing for oneself
    女婿  ―  xiāng nǚxù  ―  assess the suitability of a prospective son-in-law or husband
  2. mutually; reciprocally; towards each other; one another
      ―  xiāngwàng  ―  to look at each other
      ―  xiāngféng  ―  to meet by chance
  3. together; jointly
  4. successively; one after another
  5. towards; to
  6. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/siaŋH/
Wang
Li
/sĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]aŋ-s/
English appearance, quality

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 13586
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slaŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to look at; to examine the appearance and judge; to observe
  2. looks; appearance; features
  3. posture; carriage; bearing
  4. photo; picture; photograph
  5. phase; exterior; stage; period
  6. (physics) phase
  7. (geology) facies
  8. to physiognomise; to practise physiognomy; to tell fortune by reading the subject's facial features
  9. physiognomy; practice of physiognomy
  10. to choose; to pick
  11. to assist; to help; to oversee
  12. (historical) prime minister
  13. (historical) minister
  14. (Chinese chess) minister
  15. (historical) master of ceremonies
  16. (historical) attendant
  17. to administer; to govern
  18. to teach; to instruct
  19. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mutual, reciprocal, with one another
  2. appearance, look

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese stem form of verb あう: to meet, to be together, etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai-)

  1. mutual, together, each other, meeting
    兄弟 (きょうだい)はいつも (あい) (たたか)うものだ。
    Kyōdai wa itsumo ai-tatakau mono da.
    Brothers (siblings) will always fight (with each other).

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji -ai)

  1. mutual, together, each other, meeting
Usage notes[edit]

Generally,  () ‎() when used as a prefix,  () ‎(合i) when used as a suffix.

Etymology 2[edit]

Originally a compound of Old Japanese elements ‎(ko, this) +‎ ‎(mo, too) +‎ ‎(ko, this) +‎ ‎(mo, too). Appears as komokomo in older texts, evolving into komogomo in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(hiragana こもごも, romaji komogomo)

  1. alternating, one after another
    悲喜 (ひき) (こもごも)
    hiki komogomo
    sadness and happiness one after anothermixed feelings
  2. all mixed up and indistinct
     (こもごも) (かんが)える
    komogomo kangaeru
    to be mixed up in one's thoughts, to think confusedly
Usage notes[edit]

Most often seen spelled in hiragana as こもごも. May also be spelled variously as 交交, , .

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さが, romaji saga)

  1. nature, personality
  2. fate, destiny
  3. a habit, custom, or practice
  4. the good and bad of a person; especially, one's faults
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Middle Chinese, deriving from the meaning of with from the way that a minister would always be with their lord. Kan'on, so likely a later borrowing than the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana しょう, romaji -shō, historical hiragana しゃう)

  1. minister of state
     (しゅ) (しょう)
    shushō
    prime minister
     (ない) (しょう)
    naishō
    minister of the interior
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle Chinese. Goon, so likely an earlier borrowing than the shō reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana そう, romaji , historical hiragana さう)

  1. appearance, how something looks
  2. an aspect of something
    大自然 (だいしぜん)色々 (いろいろ) (そう)
    daishizen no iroiro na
    various aspects of nature
  3. (grammar) grammatical aspect
  4. (physics) a phase, as of matter
  5. (ikebana) the central supporting branch of an ikebana arrangement
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sang) (hangeul , revised sang, McCune-Reischauer sang, Yale sang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tương, tướng, rương)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.