相撲

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See also: 相扑

Chinese[edit]

 
each other; appearance; portrait; picture; one another; mutually
rush on
trad. (相撲)
simp. (相扑)
Wikipedia has an article on:
相撲

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

相撲

  1. mutually rushing at; fighting
  2. sumo (Japanese traditional wrestling)

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
相撲 (sumō, sumai): a sumo match.

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3 Grade: S
Irregular

⟨sumapi1/sumapi//sumafi//sumawi//sumai/

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of Old Japanese verb 争ふ (sumapu, modern sumau, to contend, to resist, to compete (in sumo, for example)), likely derived in turn from verb 済む (sumu, to settle, to finish, intransitive) as the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) suma + auxiliary verb (fu, indicating repetitive or ongoing action) → “on the verge of being settled” → “to be in competition”.

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓) for (each other) + (striking, hitting), attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō of 938 CE with the phonetic spelling 須末比 (​sumapi).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すまい, rōmaji sumai, historical hiragana すまひ)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) any competition of power and skill, such as sumo
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Short for 相撲取り (sumaitori): a sumo wrestler
    Synonyms: 相撲人 (sumaibito)
  3. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Short for 相撲の節 (Sumai no Sechi): in the Heian period, a special ceremonial sumo match held in July to help ensure a good harvest
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3 Grade: S
Irregular

Derived from Old Japanese verb 争ふ (sumapu, modern sumau, to contend, to resist, to compete (in sumo, for example)).[1][2][3]

There are two leading theories regarding the derivation.

/sumapu//sumafu/ → */sumawu//sumau//sumɔː//sumoː/
  • May be an instance of ウ音便 (u onbin, “u” sound shift), found in terms with bilabial consonants (/m/, /b/, /w/) followed by i:[1][3]
/sumapi//sumafi//sumawi/ → */sumawu//sumau//sumɔː//sumoː/

That said, the nominalization of terminal / attributive verb forms is quite rare in Japanese, whereas the “u” sound shift pattern is not uncommon.

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓) for (each other) + (striking, hitting), from sumai above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すもう, rōmaji sumō, historical hiragana すまふ)

  1. sumo (Japanese traditional wrestling)
  2. Short for 相撲取り (sumōtori): a sumo wrestler
    Synonyms: 力士 (rikishi), お相撲さん (o-sumō-san)
  3. Short for 相撲の節 (Sumō no Sechi): in the Heian period, a special ceremonial sumo match held in July to help ensure a good harvest
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すもう, rōmaji Sumō, historical hiragana すまふ)

  1. a surname​.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  3. 3.0 3.1 1984, 日本大百科全書:ニッポニカ (Nippon Dai Hyakka Zensho: Nipponica, “Encyclopedia Nipponica”) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, relevant text online here.
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  6. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0