相撲

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See also: 相扑

Chinese[edit]

 
each other; appearance; portrait; picture; one another; mutually
rush on
trad. (相撲)
simp. (相扑)
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Etymology[edit]

“sumo”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese 相撲 (すもう) (sumō).

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

相撲

  1. mutually rushing at; fighting
  2. sumo (Japanese traditional wrestling)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (相撲):

Japanese[edit]

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Wikipedia
相撲 (sumō, sumai): a sumo match.

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3 Grade: S
jukujikun

Derived from Old Japanese verb 争ふ (sumapu), modern 争う (sumau, to contend, resist, compete (in sumo, for example)).[1][2][3]

There are two leading theories regarding the derivation:

/sumapu//sumaɸu/ → */sumawu//sumau//sumɔː//sumoː/
  • May be an instance of ウ音便 (u onbin, “u” sound shift), found in terms with bilabial consonants (/m/, /b/, /w/) followed by i:[1][3]
⟨sumapi1 → */sumapʲi//sumaɸi//sumawi/ → */sumawu//sumau//sumɔː//sumoː/

That said, the nominalization of terminal/attributive verb forms is quite rare in Japanese, whereas the “u” sound shift pattern is not uncommon.

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓) for (each other) + (striking, hitting), from sumai below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すもう, rōmaji sumō, historical hiragana すまふ)

  1. sumo (Japanese traditional wrestling)
    Synonym: 角力 (kakuryoku)
  2. Short for 相撲取り (sumōtori): a sumo wrestler
    Synonyms: 力士 (rikishi), お相撲さん (o-sumō-san)
  3. (historical) Short for 相撲の節 (Sumō no Sechi) or 相撲の節会 (Sumō no Sechie): in the Heian period, a special ceremonial sumo match held in July to help ensure a good harvest
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すもう, rōmaji Sumō, historical hiragana すまふ)

  1. a surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3 Grade: S
jukujikun

⟨sumapi1 → */sumapʲi//sumaɸi//sumawi//sumai/

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of Old Japanese verb 争ふ (sumapu), modern 争う (sumau, to contend, resist, compete (in sumo, for example)), likely derived in turn from verb 済む (sumu, to settle, finish, intransitive) as the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) suma + auxiliary verb (fu, indicating repetitive or ongoing action) → “on the verge of being settled” → “to be in competition”.

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓) for (each other) + (striking, hitting), attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō of 938 CE with the phonetic spelling 須末比 (​sumapi).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すまい, rōmaji sumai, historical hiragana すまひ)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a competition of power and skill, similar to modern-day sumo
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Short for 相撲取り (sumaitori): a sumo wrestler
    Synonym: 相撲人 (sumaibito)
  3. (historical, archaic) Short for 相撲の節 (Sumai no Sechi) or 相撲の節会 (Sumai no Sechie): in the Heian period, a special ceremonial sumo match held in July to help ensure a good harvest
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3 Grade: S
jukujikun

Edo-period shift from sumō above.

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana すもん, rōmaji sumon)

  1. (obsolete) Same as すもう (sumō) above

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
そう
Grade: 3
ぼく
Grade: S
goon kan’yōon

/sauboku//sɔːboku//soːboku/

From Middle Chinese 相撲 (MC sɨɐŋ pʰuk̚). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Noun[edit]

相撲 (hiragana そうぼく, rōmaji sōboku, historical hiragana さうぼく)

  1. (obsolete) a competition of power and skill, similar to modern-day sumo

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 相撲”, in 日本大百科全書:ニッポニカ (Nippon Dai Hyakka Zensho: Nipponica, Encyclopedia Nipponica)[1] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 1984
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Old Japanese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE).

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 争ふ (sumapu, to contend, resist), likely derived in turn from verb 済む (sumu, to settle, finish, intransitive) as the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) suma + auxiliary verb (pu, indicating repetitive or ongoing action).

Noun[edit]

相撲 (sumapi1) (kana すまひ)

  1. a competition of power and skill, similar to modern-day sumo
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (Emperor Suinin, entry 9: seventh year of the seventh lunar month)
      卽日、遣倭直祖長尾市、喚野見宿禰。於是、野見宿禰、自出雲至。則當摩蹶速與野見宿禰令捔力
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (Emperor Yūryaku, entry 32: thirteenth year of the ninth lunar month)
      乃喚集采女、使脱衣裙而著犢鼻、露所相撲
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: 相撲 (sumai → sumō)