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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 60 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹人木竹水 (HODHE), four-corner 24247, composition)

  1. that, there, those

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 365, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10066
  • Dae Jaweon: page 685, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 817, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F7C

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (彼), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 支
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 甫委切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/piᴇX/ /pie̯X/ /pieX/ /piɛX/ /piə̆X/ /pǐeX/ /pjɛX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ pjeX › /*pajʔ/ that

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9690 1 /*pralʔ/

Pronoun[edit]

  1. other; that; those

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ka)

  1. distal demonstrative, something far off removed from both speaker and listener: that, yon
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かれ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of ‎(ka, that, yon) +‎ ‎(-re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana かれ, romaji kare)

  1. distal demonstrative, something far off removed from both speaker and listener: that, yon
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem #4045)
      於伎敝欲里 美知久流之保能 伊也麻之尓 安我毛布支見我 弥不根可母加礼
  2. third person pronoun: he, she
    1. particularly, male personal third person pronoun: he
    2. by extension from he: boyfriend
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かの
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Compound of ‎(ka, that, yon) +‎ ‎(no, possessive particle).[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana かの, romaji kano)

  1. distal demonstrative, something far off removed from both speaker and listener: that, yon
  2. third person pronoun: he, she, it
Usage notes[edit]

The term kano has been mostly replaced by あの ‎(ano) in modern Japanese. Kano is still in use, but is viewed as more formal and archaic.[2]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

/ka//a/

Shift in pronunciation from ka above. Appears from the Heian period.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji a)

  1. distal demonstrative, something far off removed from both speaker and listener: that, yon
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
あれ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Compound of ‎(a, that, yon) +‎ ‎(-re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana あれ, romaji are)

  1. distal demonstrative, something far off removed from both speaker and listener: that, yon
  2. third person pronoun: he, she, it
  3. second person pronoun: you
  4. a euphemism for sex: it
See also[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

More often spelled in hiragana, as あれ.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(pi)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pi, McCune-Reischauer: p'i, Yale: phi)
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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bỉ, bể, bở)

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