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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一一心 (MMP), four-corner 10331, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 391, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10824
  • Dae Jaweon: page 724, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2307, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+60E1

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 惡 (善)
Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
/nɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
Qingdao /və⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
Xining /nu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ə¹³/
Lanzhou /ə¹³/
Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /uo²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
/o³¹/
Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
Kunming /o³¹/
Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /o²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
Xiangtan /o²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
/oʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔak̚/ /ɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
è ‹ ʔak › /*ʔˤak/ bad, ugly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14220 0 /*qaːɡ/

Adjective[edit]

  1. evil, wicked, mean, bad, foul
    /   ―    ―  malicious
    經常終於犯事 [MSC, trad.]
    经常终于犯事 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā jīngcháng zuò , zhè huí zhōngyú fànshì le. [Pinyin]
    He often does bad things and has finally been caught.

Antonyms[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 惡 (善)
Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
/nɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
Qingdao /və⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
Xining /nu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ə¹³/
Lanzhou /ə¹³/
Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /uo²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
/o³¹/
Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
Kunming /o³¹/
Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /o²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
Xiangtan /o²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
/oʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuoH/ /ʔuoH/ /ʔoH/ /ʔuoH/ /ʔɔH/ /uH/ /ʔoH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ʔuH › /*ʔˤak-s/ hate (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14219 0 /*qaːɡs/

Verb[edit]

  1. to hate; to loathe
    /   ―  yàn  ―  to loathe

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 惡 (善)
Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
/nɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
Qingdao /və⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
Xining /nu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ə¹³/
Lanzhou /ə¹³/
Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /uo²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
/o³¹/
Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
Kunming /o³¹/
Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /o²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
Xiangtan /o²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
/oʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuo/ /ʔuo/ /ʔo/ /ʔuo/ /ʔɔ/ /u/ /ʔo/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14217 0 /*qaː/

Interjection[edit]

  1. used to express surprise: oh; ah

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ak, o) (hangeul , , revised ak, o, McCune-Reischauer ak, o, Yale ak, o)

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Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ác, )

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