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U+60E1, 惡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-60E1

[U+60E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+60E2]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一一心 (MMP), four-corner 10331, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 391, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10824
  • Dae Jaweon: page 724, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2307, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+60E1

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
惡-seal.svg 惡-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ): phonetic (OC *qraːɡs) + semantic (heart).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔak (bad); cognate with Tibetan ཨག་པོ (ag po, bad) (Coblin, 1986; Schuessler, 2007). Also related to Thai ยาก (yâak, difficult) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • ok - literary;
  • oh - vernacular (“difficult; slow”, usually written as ).
Note:
  • ag4 - literary;
  • oh4 - vernacular (“difficult”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 惡 (善)
    Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
    /nɤ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
    Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
    Qingdao /və⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
    Xining /nu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ə¹³/
    Lanzhou /ə¹³/
    Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /uo²¹³/
    Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
    /o³¹/
    Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
    Kunming /o³¹/
    Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
    Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /o²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
    Xiangtan /o²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
    Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
    Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
    Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
    /oʔ³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    e
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ok3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    è
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁak/
    English bad, ugly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 14220
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. evil; wicked; bad; foul; ill; vicious
      /   ―  è  ―  malicious
      /   ―  èhuà  ―  to deteriorate
      經常終於犯事 [MSC, trad.]
      经常终于犯事 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā jīngcháng zuò'è, zhè huí zhōngyú fànshì le. [Pinyin]
      He often does bad things and has finally been caught.
      Antonym: (shàn)
    2. (Cantonese) fierce; hostile
      心情 [Cantonese, trad.]
      心情 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 sam1 cing4 m4 hou2 zau6 hou2 ok3 gaa3 laa3. [Jyutping]
      When he's upset, he gets really hostile.
    3. (Cantonese, Min Nan) difficult
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      ni1 daan1 je5 hou2 ok3 gaau2. [Jyutping]
      This is really hard to deal with.
    4. (Taiwanese Hokkien) slow
    Usage notes[edit]

    is more common for the Hokkien word when pronounced oh.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (あく) (aku)
    • Korean: (, ak)
    • Vietnamese: ác ()

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Exoactive of etymology 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuoH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuoH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔoH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔoH/
    Wang
    Li
    /uH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuoH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wu3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔuH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁak-s/
    English hate (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 14219
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to hate; to loathe; to dislike
      /   ―  yàn  ―  to loathe

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Cognate with (OC *qaːn, “where; how”), (OC *qan, “where; how”).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wu1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 14217
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. An interrogative pronoun: how
    2. Interjection used to express surprise: oh; ah

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is a variant traditional form of .)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Probably related to etymologies 1 and 2 (Zhengzhang, 2011b; Xiang, 2019). Alternatively, (MC ʔuɑH, “to soil; to stain”) has been proposed to be the etymon (Cao, 2008).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Wu) excrement
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɑk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅡᆨ〮 (Yale: qák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 모〯딜 (Yale: mwǒtìl) 악〮 (Yale: ák)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 악할 (akhal ak))

    1. Hanja form? of (evil; wickedness). [noun]
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔuoH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅩᆼ〮 (Yale: qwó)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 아쳐 (Yale: achye) (Yale: wo)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 미워할 (miwohal o))

    1. Hanja form? of (to hate). [affix]
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: ác,

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.