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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

 + 

Han character[edit]

(radical 119 +11, 17 strokes, cangjie input 火木田廿金 (FDWTC), four-corner 90801, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 912, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27102
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1339, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3158, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7CDE

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (1)
Final: (59)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: fèn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɨunH/ /piunH/ /piuənH/ /punH/ /piuənH/ /pĭuənH/ /pi̯uənH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fèn ‹ pjunH › /*p[u]r-s/ manure, dirt

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3197 1 /*pɯns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. manure, dung, night soil

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くそ
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Cognate with 臭い ‎(kusai, stinky, smelly), 腐る ‎(kusaru, to rot, to become stinky).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso)

  1. (colloquial) feces, excrement
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Interjection[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso)

  1. (expletive) crap, shit, bullshit
Usage notes[edit]

This is not considered as profane as the English glosses. For instance, a child of five using the Japanese interjection kuso would be unremarkable, whereas it would be very socially inappropriate for a child of five to use the English interjection shit.

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso-)

  1. A derogatory prefix.
     (くそ) (じじ)
    kusojijī
    crappy old man

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji -kuso)

  1. crappy, for shit: a derogatory emphasizing suffix.
    下手 (へた) (くそ)
    hetakuso
    crappy bad at something; to be shit at doing something
    襤褸 (ぼろ) (くそ)
    borokuso
    broken down for shit, raggedy-ass

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふん
Hyōgaiji
on'yomi

/pun//fun/

From Middle Chinese ‎(pjunH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふん, katakana フン, romaji fun)

  1. animal excrement, droppings
Usage notes[edit]

This noun specifically refers to the excrement of non-human animals; for human excrement, the term 大便 ‎(daiben) is used.

Due to the complicated nature of this kanji, this word is often written in katakana instead.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ばば
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Appears to derive from baby talk.[1][2] Compare English poopoo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ばば, romaji baba)

  1. (children's word): poopoo, poop, dookie
  2. (children's word): something unclean
Idioms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bun) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer pun, Yale pun)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phẩn, phân)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.