As with all verbs, during the Middle Japanese stage in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the 終止形 (shūshikei, “terminal or sentence-ending form”) was gradually lost as the 連体形 (rentaikei, “attributive form”) came to be used for both the attributive and terminal grammatical roles, realigning the conjugations.
- 為る (rare)
する (transitive, irregular conjugation, romaji suru)
- to do
- nani o shite imasu ka.
- What are you doing?
- to wear (accessories)
- nekutai o suru.
- I wear a necktie.
The verb する (“to do”) is seldom written in kanji (為る).
It is common to use する after certain nouns to indicate that the noun is being done; this is highly productive, meaning many nouns can be used as verbs in this way. Some examples are:
- 勉強 (benkyō, “studying”) → 勉強する (benkyō suru, “to do studying” → “to study”)
- 旅行 (ryokō, “journey”) → 旅行する (ryokō suru, “to do journey” → “to travel”)
- (to do): 成す, 為す (なす, nasu) (somewhat archaic, usage is more limited)
- (to do): 行う (おこなう, okonau) (to carry out)
- (used to make a verb): 〜る (-ru), a much less productive suffix for turning a noun into a verb
- す (su)
Reading for various kanji spellings.
する (romaji suru)
- 刷る, 摺る: to print something (from the way the paper would be placed on the printing block and rubbed)
- 掏る: to pick someone's pocket (possibly from the way a pickpocket must slide along unnoticed; compare English slick)
- 擦る, 摩る, 磨る, 擂る: to slide, to rub, to chafe, to strike (as in a match, by rubbing); to lose or waste money
- 剃る: irregular reading for 剃る (soru, “to shave”)