する

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese root verb (su, to do).[1][2]

As with all verbs, during the Middle Japanese stage in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal or sentence-ending form) was gradually lost as the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) came to be used for both the attributive and terminal grammatical roles, realigning the conjugations.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

する (transitive, irregular conjugation, romaji suru)

  1. to do
     (なに)していますか。
    nani o shite imasu ka.
    What are you doing?
  2. to wear (accessories)
    ネクタイをする
    nekutai o suru.
    I wear a necktie.
Usage notes[edit]

The verb する (“to do”) is seldom written in kanji (為る).

It is common to use する after certain nouns to indicate that the noun is being done; this is highly productive, meaning many nouns can be used as verbs in this way. Some examples are:

  • 失礼 (shitsurei, rudeness) → 失礼する (shitsurei suru, “to do a rudeness” → “to be rude”)
  • 旅行 (ryokō, journey) → 旅行する (ryokō suru, “to do a journey” → “to travel”)
Synonyms[edit]
See also[edit]
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Reading for various kanji spellings.

Verb[edit]

する (romaji suru)

Various verbs deriving from senses similar to “to slide” or “to rub”:

  1. 刷る, 摺る: to print something (from the way the paper would be placed on the printing block and rubbed)
  2. 掏る: to pick someone's pocket (possibly from the way a pickpocket must slide along unnoticed;[1] compare English slick)
  3. 擦る, 摩る, 磨る, 擂る: to slide, to rub, to chafe, to strike (as in a match, by rubbing); to lose or waste money
  4. 剃る: irregular reading for 剃る (soru, to shave)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3