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See also:
U+5FA1, 御
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FA1

[U+5FA0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FA2]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 60, +8 in traditional Chinese and Korean, 彳+9 in mainland China and Japanese, 11 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 12 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 竹人人一中 (HOOML), four-corner 27220, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 368, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10157
  • Dae Jaweon: page 693, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 832, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+5FA1

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): semantic  + semantic .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

Sino-Tibetan. Schuessler (2007) compared to Burmese [script needed] (môŋ, drive away, threaten) and [script needed] (ə-môŋ, driving).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ghe6 - "to ride" or "to defend against";
  • ghe7 - "imperial".

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨʌH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɔH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɔH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɔH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭoH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯woH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjoX › ‹ ngjoH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-[qʰ](r)aʔ/ /*[ŋ](r)a-s/
English ward off; withstand drive a chariot (loan)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13181
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋas/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (prefix) imperial
  2. to manage, to govern (of the sovereign, by extension, to be present in)
  3. to ride (on an animal or a vehicle drawn by animals)
  4. Alternative form of (“to defend against”).
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Wǒ yǒu zhǐ xù, yì yǐ dōng. Yàn ěr xīn hūn, yǐ wǒ qióng. [Pinyin]
    My fine collection of vegetables, is but a provision against the winter. Feasting with your new wife, you think of me as a provision [only] against your poverty.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to defend”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

As variant kanji of :

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/oɴ//o/

Shift from on- below.[1][2]

Already apparent since the 14th century.

Prefix[edit]

() (o-

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Not to be confused with (ō-, great), which is a less-commonly used prefix.

Almost exclusively written in hiragana, to disambiguate with the heteronyms below.

Prefixed to the native Japanese words, as in 御水 (o-mizu, water) (words read with 訓読み (kun'yomi)). However, there are numerous exceptions such as お弁当 (o-bentō) and お電話 (o-denwa). In old use, prefixed short women's names regardless of the type of reading, for example お菊 (o-Kiku), おしん (o-Shin), お仙 (o-Sen), お妙 (o-Tae), etc. For 外来語 (gairaigo, (non-Chinese) foreign loan words), this prefix is seldom used, but somewhat preferred in the jargon of some kinds of industry, as in おビール (o-bīru, beer).

Usage varies between speakers, situations, and gender – more polite speech, especially by women, features more use of this prefix, while blunt speech, especially by men, uses it less or not at all (words where the prefix has become mandatory are replaced by blunter terms that do not have the prefix). In rare cases a prefixed term has become impolite, as in 御前 (omae, you (familiar or derogatory)).

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おん
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/oɸomʉ//owomʉ//oːɴ//oɴ/

Early-Late Middle Japanese shift from ōn- below.[1]

Prefix[edit]

(おん) (on-

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
おおん
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
おおむ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨opomi1*/opomʲɨ/*/əpəmʲɨ//oɸomʉ//owoɴ//oːɴ/

First attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE), as man'yōgana form 於保无 (opomu- → ōmu-) within 於保无太加良 (opomutakara → ōmutakara, people, as a kun reading of 人民).

Shift from Old Japanese 大御 (⟨opomi1 → ōmi-, prefix of maximum honorific).

Both ōmu- and ōn- readings likely existed in free variation until the development of the (n) grapheme.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(おおん) (ōn- (historical kana おほん)
(alternative reading hiragana おおむ, rōmaji ōmu-, historical hiragana おほむ)

  1. (obsolete) indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨mi1 → */mʲi//mi/

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with , (mi, spirit, god), as this prefix was originally used to refer to gods and other spiritually important things.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (honorific emphasizing beauty): ,

Prefix[edit]

() (mi-

  1. (honorific, archaic) added to gods and other spiritually important things
  2. (honorific, archaic) added to nouns to indicate godlike respect
  3. (honorific, archaic) added to placenames to emphasize beauty
Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Primarily for the religious words, pertaining to gods or the emperor, as in 御輿 (mikoshi, portable shrine). However, in this context it is often replaced by ("god", also pronounced mi-), and then a further (​o-) may be added, as in 御神輿 (o-mikoshi). The mi- prefix also became merged into other kanji, as in (miya, imperial palace).

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌH).

The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

Prefix[edit]

() (go-

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Prefixed to the Sino-Japanese words, as in 御主人 (goshujin, husband).

While in general this prefix is optional, in many cases it is so commonly used that the base word can no longer be used in isolation, as in 御飯 (gohan, rice) – the form × (*han) is not used alone, though it can be used as parts of compounds (such as 炊飯, suihan, “rice cooking”), and the character can be read in isolation as meshi.

It may also be used with modern foreign borrowings.

本日(ほんじつ)ニコニコ動画(どうが)()アクセス(いただ)き、ありがとうございます
Honjitsu wa Nikoniko Dōga ni go-akusesu-itadaki, arigatō gozaimasu.
Thank you for accessing Niconico today.

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

Short form of 御前 (gozen, noble person).

Suffix[edit]

() (-go

  1. (honorific) indicates that the [word] is familiar to the speaker and slightly honorific
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (go

  1. (obsolete, archaic, honorific) a lady
    suffixed to the given name, via genitive particle (no):
    ()()()Ise no GoLady Ise
  2. (obsolete, archaic, honorific) form of address to a woman or a court lady: my Lady
    used in the plural form 御達 (gotachi)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぎょ
Grade: S
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌH).

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (horseriding, coachman):

Noun[edit]

(ぎょ) (gyo

  1. equestrianism, horseriding
  2. a coachman
  3. (by extension) serving nearby (to an aristocrat, etc.)
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(ぎょ) (gyo-

  1. prefixed to make an honorific kanji compound, especially used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the emperor and/or the equivalents
Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(ぎょ) (-gyo

  1. suffixed to make an honorific kanji compound which means the action belongs or is related to the emperor and/or the equivalents
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

(ぎょ) (gyo

  1. control (a machine, etc.)
  2. govern, rule
  3. servant
  4. Alternative spelling of (gyo): defend, protect

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eo, a) (hangeul , , revised eo, a, McCune–Reischauer ŏ, a, Yale e, a)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with , (mi1, spirit, god), as this prefix was originally used to refer to gods and other spiritually important things.

Prefix[edit]

(mi1-) (kana )

  1. (honorific) added to gods and other spiritually important things
  2. (honorific) added to nouns to indicate godlike respect
  3. (honorific) added to placenames to emphasize beauty

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: , , (mi-)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngự, ngợ, ngừ, ngừa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.