人民

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Chinese[edit]

man; person; people the people; nationality; citizen
simp. and trad.
(人民)
anagram 民人

Etymology[edit]

Attestable in pre-Qin texts. Modern sense Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (じん) (みん) (jinmin, the people), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 人民 (rénmín, “common people”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (38) (4)
Final () (43) (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/ /miɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/ /min/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/ /mjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/ /min/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/ /miĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/ /mĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/ /mi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén mín
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén mín
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin › ‹ mjin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/ /*mi[ŋ]/
English (other) person people

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 10800 9130
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/ /*min/

Noun[edit]

人民

  1. people (collectively)
    熱愛人民 / 热爱人民  ―  rè'ài rénmín  ―  to love the people
    科技人民利益服務 [MSC, trad.]
    科技人民利益服务 [MSC, simp.]
    Kējì yīng wèi rénmín lìyì fúwù. [Pinyin]
    Science and technology should work for the good of the people.
    中國人民政治協商會議 [MSC, trad.]
    中国人民政治协商会议 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó rénmín zhèngzhì xiéshāng huìyì [Pinyin]
    Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
    孟子:「諸侯土地人民政事珠玉及身。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    孟子:“诸侯土地人民政事珠玉及身。” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: c. 300 BC, 孟子 盡心下:74 (Mencius (book)); translation: 1861, James Legge, The Works of Mencius
    Mèngzǐ yuē: “Zhūhóu zhī bǎo sān: tǔdì, rénmín, zhèngshì. Bǎo zhūyù zhě, yāng bì jíshēn.” [Pinyin]
    Mencius said, 'The precious things of a prince are three: the territory, the people, the government and its business. If one value as most precious pearls and jade, calamity is sure to befall him.'

Usage notes[edit]

人民 (rénmín) can only refer to people collectively, as a unit. To refer to people as individually countable persons, use (rén). To refer to people in an otherwise general sense, use 人們人们 (rénmen).

Synonyms[edit]

edit

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (人民):

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
みん
Grade: 4
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 人民 (*njin *min). Compare modern Mandarin 人民 (rénmín), Wu 人民 (zen min (T3)), Min Nan 人民 (jîn-bîn).

Formerly pronounced with a consistent goon reading of ninmin, later changing to a mixed kan'on / goon reading of jinmin.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

人民 (hiragana じんみん, rōmaji jinmin)

  1. the people, the general public, the citizens

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Hanja[edit]

人民 (inmin) (hangeul 인민)

  1. Hanja form? of 인민 (the people (of a country), citizens).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

人民

  1. Hán tự form of nhân dân, (“people”).