百姓

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Chinese[edit]

hundred surname; family name; name
simp. and trad.
(百姓)
Literally: “hundred surnames ― see 百家姓”.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (1) (16)
Final () (113) (121)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠæk̚/ /siᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚak̚/ /siɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/pak̚/ /siæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/paɨjk̚/ /siajŋH/
Li
Rong
/pɐk̚/ /siɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/pɐk̚/ /sĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɐk̚/ /si̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bo xìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bǎi xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pæk › ‹ sjengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˤrak/ /*seŋ-s/
English hundred surname

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 194 11359
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*praːɡ/ /*sleŋs/

Noun[edit]

百姓

  1. the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
  2. officials
    九族平章百姓 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    From: 《書•堯典》
    Jiǔzú jì mù, píngzhāng bǎixìng. [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this example)

Synonyms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese compound 百姓 (paek sjengH, literally hundred clans). Compare modern Hakka 百姓 (pak-siang).[1]

The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

百姓 (hiragana ひゃくしょう, rōmaji hyakushō, historical hiragana ひやくしやう)

  1. commoners, the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
  2. a farmer; a peasant; the peasantry in general
  3. in reference to the Edo period, short for 本百姓 (honbyakushō, the hundred commoner families, a class of farmers with specific rights and responsibilities)
  4. country bumpkin
Synonyms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

百姓する (hiragana ひゃくしょう, rōmaji hyakushō, historical hiragana ひやくしやう)

  1. to farm, to till the fields
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
on’yomi

Kan'on reading of both characters, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

百姓 (hiragana はくせい, rōmaji hakusei)

  1. (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
on’yomi

Kan'on reading of the second character, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

百姓 (hiragana ひゃくせい, rōmaji hyakusei, historical hiragana ひやくせい)

  1. (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 4[edit]

Non-palatalized variant of hyakushō reading, commonly found in writings from the Heian period through the Muromachi period.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

百姓 (hiragana ひゃくそう, rōmaji hyakusō, historical hiragana ひやくさう)

  1. (obsolete) See under Etymology 1

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3