百姓と楽しみを同じゅうす (hyakushō to tanoshimi o onajūsu): “taking one's pleasure the same as a commoner” → a lord must know the joys and pains of the people
百姓と油は絞るほど出る (hyakushō to abura wa shiboru hodo deru): “commoners and oil [sources] give more the harder you squeeze” → the more you demand of the people, the more you get. Compare blood from a stone of roughly opposite meaning.
百姓の泣き言と医者の手柄話 (hyakushō no nakigoto to isha no tegarabanashi): “the complaints of the peasants and the boasting of the doctors” → a contrast between peasants complaining of poor harvests in a bid to reduce their tax liabilities, against the feats of doctors who will do their utmost to treat even a terminal patient: by extension, an exhortation to put in 101% without grumbling about it
百姓の去年物語 (hyakushō no kozo monogatari): “a peasant's tale of last year” → alluding to how peasants would often claim that last year's harvest was better than this year, in a bid to reduce their tax liabilities
百姓の作り倒れ (hyakushō no tsukuridaore): “a peasant's manufactured collapse” → describing how peasants working too hard can result in too much produce on the market, causing a price collapse and sizable losses: to be one's own undoing, to defeat oneself by working too hard
百姓の秋大名 (hyakushō no aki daimyō): “a peasant's autumn lord” → a metaphor for how the autumn season following the harvest is a time of bounty for commoners
百姓の所務分けで田分け尽くす (hyakushō no shomuwake de tawake tsukusu): “splitting up a commoner's inheritance amounts to a parceling out of fields / to complete nonsense” → a pun on the reading tawake for both 田分け (“splitting up fields”) and 戯け (“nonsense”), based on how dividing up fields for every generation's inheritance ultimately leads to very small plots and inefficient farming
百姓の不作話と商人の損話 (hyakushō no fusakubanashi to akindo no sonbanashi): “peasants' talk of poor harvests and merchants' talk of business losses” → farmers and businessmen always grumble about how things aren't going well