百姓

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Chinese[edit]

hundred surname; family name; name
trad. (百姓)
simp. #(百姓)
Literally: “hundred surnames”.

Etymology[edit]

Earliest attested in the Zhou dynasty's texts (also written as 百生 (bǎixìng ~ bǎishēng) on some bronze inscriptions);[1] further linked to the expression 多生 (duōshēng) on the oracle bone inscriptions.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (1) (16)
Final () (113) (121)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II III
Fanqie
Baxter paek sjengH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠæk̚/ /siᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚak̚/ /siɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/pak̚/ /siæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/paɨjk̚/ /siajŋH/
Li
Rong
/pɐk̚/ /siɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/pɐk̚/ /sĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɐk̚/ /si̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bo xìng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bak1 sing3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bǎi xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pæk › ‹ sjengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁrak/ /*seŋ-s/
English hundred surname

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 194 11359
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*praːɡ/ /*sleŋs/
The template Template:rfv-pron does not use the parameter(s):
2=Mandarin "bóxìng" (literary varient?)
Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Noun[edit]

百姓

  1. the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
    愚昧百姓  ―  yúmèi bǎixìng  ―  to keep the common people in the dark
  2. (obsolete, Classical) all kinds of government officials

Synonyms[edit]

  • (common people):
  • (all kinds of government officials):

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (百姓):

Others:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vogt, Nick, “Between Kin and King: Social Aspects of Western Zhou Ritual” (Ph.D. dissertation: Columbia University, 2012). pp. 44, 52-54 doi: 10.7916/D82231V3
  2. ^ Crone, Thomas. (2016). The semantic change of the word min 民 in texts of the Eastern Zhou Period (771–221 BC). Asiatische Studien - Études Asiatiques. 70. p. 693, fn. 42. doi: 10.5167/uzh-151500

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
しょう
Grade: S
goon

From Middle Chinese compound 百姓 (paek sjengH, literally hundred clans). Compare modern Hakka 百姓 (pak-siang).[1]

The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

First cited to the 続日本紀 (Shoku Nihongi) in a portion dated to 701 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ひゃく)(しょう) (hyakushōひやくしやう (fyakusyau)?

  1. [from circa 1120] (historical or derogatory) a farmer; a peasant; the peasantry in general
    Synonyms: 農民, 農家
    きさま、(ひゃく)(しょう)()まれだな?
    Kisama, hyakushō no umare da na?
    You are from a peasant family, aren't you?
    1. [1731] (derogatory) country bumpkin
    2. [from 1759] (historical) in reference to the Edo period, short for 本百姓 (honbyakushō, the hundred commoner families, a class of farmers with specific rights and responsibilities)
  2. [from 701] (archaic) commoners, the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
    Synonyms: 公民, 民衆
Synonyms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

(ひゃく)(しょう)する (hyakushō suruひやくしやう (fyakusyau)?suru (stem (ひゃく)(しょう) (hyakushō shi), past (ひゃく)(しょう)した (hyakushō shita))

  1. [from 1906] to farm, to till the fields
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
kan’on

[[漢音#Japanese|Kan'on]] reading of both characters, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

Cited to the mid-Muromachi period, roughly the 1400s.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ha̠kɯ̟ᵝse̞ː]

Noun[edit]

(はく)(せい) (hakusei

  1. [from the 1400s] (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
goon kan’on

[[漢音#Japanese|Kan'on]] reading of the second character, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

First cited to a text from 1776.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ひゃく)(せい) (hyakuseiひやくせい (fyakusei)?

  1. [1776] (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 4[edit]

Non-palatalized variant of hyakushō reading, commonly found in writings from the Heian period through the Muromachi period.[1]

First cited to the Utsubo Monogatari of roughly 999 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ça̠kɯ̟ᵝso̞ː]

Noun[edit]

百姓(ひゃくそう) (hyakusōひやくさう (fyakusau)?

  1. [from 999] (obsolete) See under Etymology 1

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

百姓 (baekseong) (hangeul 백성)

  1. Hanja form? of 백성 (The populace; the common people).

Vietnamese[edit]

chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun[edit]

百姓

  1. chữ Hán form of bá tánh (the commoners; the common folk; the citizens).