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See also: and
U+723E, 爾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-723E

[U+723D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+723F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 89, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
爾-oracle.svg 爾-bronze.svg 爾-silk.svg 爾-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing – original form of (OC *niːlʔ, “loom”). Used phonetically.

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𡭗

𠇍
“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"that"
Cognate with (, “that”), (OC *njaɡ, “that”) (Schuessler, 2007). See () for more.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /le³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵieX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ěr
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ěr ěr ěr
Middle
Chinese
‹ nejX › ‹ nyeX › ‹ nyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁ[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/
English numerous (adv. suffix) you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njelʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary or dialectal) you; your
  2. (literary) so; this way
  3. (literary) this; that
  4. (of flowers) exuberant
  5. final particle
  6. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: niâ - contraction of 爾爾尔尔 (niā-niā).

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Hokkien) that's all; nothing more; is all

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Hokkien) only

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiᴇX).

Affix[edit]

() (ji

  1. second person archaic pronoun: thou, you
  2. distal pronoun equivalent to modern それ (sore) or その (sono): that
  3. auxiliary character in 漢文 (kanbun) texts indicating state or condition

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おれ
Jinmeiyō
Irregular
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese, found in use mostly from ancient times until roughly the Heian period,[1] used to refer in the second person to social inferiors or to insult.[1][2][3]

The second person sense of you appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(おれ) (ore

  1. (archaic, vulgar) second person pronoun: you
Usage notes[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
なんじJ
[pronoun] (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
しか
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune–Reischauer i, Yale i)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronoun[edit]

(ore) (kana おれ)

  1. second person pronoun: you
    • 711712, Kojiki (Second scroll, Yamato Takeru no mikoto)
      爾詔:「吾者坐纒向之日代宮所知大八嶋國。大帶日子淤斯呂和氣天皇之御子、名倭男具那王者也、意禮熊曾建二人不伏無禮聞看而、取殺意禮詔而遣。」
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: , (ore)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhãi, nhĩ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.