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See also: and
U+723E, 爾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-723E

[U+723D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+723F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 89 +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Small seal script
爾-oracle.svg 爾-bronze.svg 爾-silk.svg 爾-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rneːlʔ, *niːlʔ
*niːlʔ
*niːlʔ, *mnel
*niːlʔ
*niːlʔ
*niːlʔ, *neːb
*niːlʔ, *mnel, *mnelʔ
*mnel
*mnel
*mnel
*mnel, *hnjel
*mnel
*mnelʔ
*smlelʔ
*smlelʔ
*njelʔ
*njelʔ
*smlenʔ
*neb, *neːb

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing. Used phonetically.

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms
𡭗

𠇍
“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /le³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵieX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ěr
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ěr ěr ěr
Middle
Chinese
‹ nejX › ‹ nyeX › ‹ nyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤ[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/
English numerous (adv. suffix) you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njelʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary or dialectal) you; your
  2. (literary) so; this way
  3. (literary) this; that
  4. (of flowers) exuberant
  5. final particle
  6. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 你家
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 爾儂像儂像爾
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: niâ - contraction of 爾爾尔尔 (niā-niā).

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Hokkien) that's all; nothing more; is all

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Hokkien) only

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. you
  2. like that, that way

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
おれ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in use mostly from ancient times until roughly the Heian period,[1] used to refer in the second person to social inferiors or to insult.[1][2][3]

The second person sense of you appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

Not to be confused with the modern term (ore) with the first person sense of I, me. See for that sense.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana おれ, rōmaji ore)

  1. (archaic, vulgar) you
Usage notes[edit]

Often used to insult. Compare modern Japanese お前 (omae), English you son of a bitch.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

/namuti/*/nandi//nand͡ʑi/

From Old Japanese. Originally derived as a compound of (na, you) +‎ (muchi, honorific suffix).[1][2][3]

Originally used to refer honorifically to the second person. From around the Nara period, the honorific sense lessened, and the term was used to refer to social equals or occasionally social inferiors. By the Muromachi period, this term was the most common second person pronoun for social inferiors.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (more common)

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana なんじ, rōmaji nanji)

  1. (archaic) thou, you
Usage notes[edit]

No longer in use in modern Japanese outside of contexts where the speaker is deliberately invoking archaic usage. Compare use of English thou.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しか
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Compound of (shi, that, demonstrative, likely related to (sa), modern そう ()) +‎ (ka, suffix indicating state).[1][3]

The interjection sense appears to have developed from the adverb sense.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (more common)

Adverb[edit]

(hiragana しか, rōmaji shika)

  1. (obsolete) like that, as such
  2. (obsolete) certainly, definitely
Derived terms[edit]

Interjection[edit]

(hiragana しか, rōmaji shika)

  1. (obsolete, conversational) yeah, uh-huh

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune-Reischauer i, Yale i)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhãi, nhĩ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.