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U+541B, 君
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-541B

[U+541A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+541C]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 尸大口 (SKR), four-corner 17607, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 177, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3323
  • Dae Jaweon: page 394, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 595, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+541B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
君-oracle.svg 君-bronze.svg ACC-b01237.svg 君-seal.svg 君-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l̥ʰuːn
*krun
*krun, *ɡrunʔ, *klun
*kʰrun
*kʰrun, *ɡrunʔ
*kʰrun
*ɡrunʔ
*ɡrunʔ
*klun
*klun
*klun, *ɡlun
*klun
*kluns
*ɡlun
*ɡlun
*ɡlun
*ɡlun
*ɡlun
*qʰlun
*ɡluns

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *klun) and ideogrammic compound (會意): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷlinʔ, (hand holding a rod) to administer) + semantic  (mouth). In the oracle bones and early Zhou bronze inscriptions, (jūn) was often interchanged with . Shuowen suggests that represents commands, but it may simply be decorative.

Etymology[edit]

“lord; prince”
Unknown. Here are several possibilities:
ACG sense
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (-kun).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕyn⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕyn²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕyẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕyə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕyn²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕyẽ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕĩ/
Nanjing /t͡ɕyn³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕyn²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕyŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕyŋ⁵³/
/t͡ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕyən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sz̩ʷen³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕyan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕyn³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕyn³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕyn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kiun⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐn⁵³/
Nanning /kʷɐn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kwɐn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kun⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kuŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kin²³/
/kun²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (59)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨun/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiun/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kun/
Li
Rong
/kiuən/
Wang
Li
/kĭuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jūn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jūn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjun ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qur/
English lord; ruler

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7289
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*klun/

Definitions[edit]

  1. sovereign; monarch; ruler; chief; prince; lord
  2. (historical) A honorific title: lord
  3. (literary, honorific) you; your (referring to a male)
  4. A polite form of address used among couples.
  5. to dominate; to reign
  6. (ACG, Internet slang) -kun
  7. (ACG, Internet slang) Affectionate name suffix.
    字幕  ―  zìmùjūn  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
  8. A surname​.

Related terms[edit]

  • (ACG) (sāng, “-san”), (jiàng, “-chan”), (tàn, “-tan”), (yàng, “-sama”)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. king, lord, ruler
  2. person of high rank
  3. form of address to fellow colleagues or inferiors

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
きみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

⟨ki1mi1 → */kʲimʲi//kimi/

From Old Japanese.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana きみ, rōmaji kimi)

  1. a ruler of a country
    1. an emperor
      Synonyms: 天子 (tenshi), 天皇 (tennō)
    2. a lord
    Antonym: (omi)
  2. a master
    Synonyms: 主君 (shukun), 主人 (shujin)
  3. a nobleman or other person of high(er) rank
  4. (after a (ga) or (no) particle) term of respect to another person
  5. (historical, archaic) a prostitute
  6. (historical) one of the hereditary titles bestowed to local chiefs in ancient Japan
Derived terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana きみ, katakana キミ, rōmaji kimi)

  1. (informal, men's speech) second-person personal pronoun: you
    • 1086, Goshūi Wakashū (book 12, poem 669; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 50)
       (きみ)がため ()しからざりし (いのち)さへ (なが)くもがなと (おも)ひけるかな
      kimi ga tama oshikarazarishi inochi sae nagaku mogana to omoikeru kana
      I thought I would give up my life to hold you in my arms, but after a night together, I find myself wishing that I could live for ever.[3]
    • 2000 September 18, Inokuma, Shinobu, “PARTパート1 あめのち… [PART1 After the Rain…]”, in SALAD DAYSサラダデイズ BRAND NEW STANDARD OF LOVE STORIES [SALAD DAYS: BRAND NEW STANDARD OF LOVE STORIES], volume 11 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 110:
       (おれ) (べつ)にいいけど…キミ (がっ) (こう)で「 ()らない (ひと)について ()っちゃダメ」とか、 (おそ)わんなかった?
      Ore wa betsu ni ii kedo… Kimi, gakkō de “shiranai hito ni tsuite itcha dame” to ka, osowan nakatta?
      Fine by me… But haven’t you been taught at school that “you shouldn’t go anywhere with strangers”?
Usage notes[edit]
  • This is an example of a word that can be spelled with katakana to convey an informal conversational tone.
  • When used in lyrics and poetry, this word is considered less colloquial and more poetic than in spoken language.

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ぎみ, rōmaji -gimi)

  1. indicates respect
     (ちち) (ぎみ)
    chichi-gimi
    your father
Usage notes[edit]
  • There is no direct translation in English – as with other Japanese honorifics, it might roughly correspond to dear, as in “your dear father”.
  • Respectful suffixes also serve to indicate whose relative is in question: rather than “my father” and “your father”, one would say (chichi, father) and 父君 (chichi-gimi, dear father).
  • Used of nobles. Attaches to close family relationship nouns such as (haha, mother), (ane, sister), (hime, daughter of a noble family, princess).
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
くん
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨun).

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana くん, rōmaji -kun)

  1. suffix for boys' names
  2. indicates respect
  3. indicates familiarity
Usage notes[edit]

-kun is often used as a suffix when calling someone. The listener is lower or the same level in social position and is often, but not always, male.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
きんじ
Grade: 3

/kimud͡ʑi//kind͡ʑi/

Shift from older きむぢ (kimudi → kimuji). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana きんじ, rōmaji kinji, historical hiragana きんぢ)

  1. second person personal pronoun: you
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Fukiage, ge)[4]
      きんぢ、この手を傳へ施す物ならば、この世になからん世なりとも、訪ひ守らん。
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Kurabiraki, jō)[5]
      「[...] ある時は「きんぢがつたなく吾を人気なくハ生み出したる」とさへぞの給フや」
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Kuniyuzuri, jō)[6]
      喜びて、見給ヒて、聲を放ちて「我が親の今々とし給ひしまで「我はきんぢを思ふにぞ黄泉もえ往くまじき。[...]」」

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ Peter MacMillan, translator (2018) One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each: A Treasury of Classical Japanese Verse, Penguin UK, →ISBN
  4. ^ Kōno, Tama (c. 970–999) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1959, →ISBN.
  5. ^ Kōno, Tama (1961) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 11: Utsubo Monogatari 2 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  6. ^ Kōno, Tama (1962) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 12: Utsubo Monogatari 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum gun))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quân, vua)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]