Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+70AD, 炭
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70AD

[U+70AC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70AE]
炭 U+2F91A, 炭
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F91A
灷
[U+2F919]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 𠔥
[U+2F91B]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 山大火 (UKF) or 山一火 (UMF), four-corner 22289, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 668, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18953
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1077, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2195, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+70AD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tŋ̊ʰaːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ŋɡaːns).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tal (charcoal; dust; ashes). Cognate with Tibetan ཐལ་བ (thal ba, ashes; dust; dirt).

Derivative: (tàn, “carbon”).

(ACG slang) -tan
Borrowed from Japanese たん (tan).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • thàn - literary;
  • thòaⁿ - vernacular.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (6)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tʰɑnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tʰɑnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tʰɑnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tʰanH/
    Li
    Rong
    /tʰɑnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /tʰɑnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tʰɑnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    tàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    tàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ thanH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tʰ]ˁa[n]-s/
    English charcoal, coal

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12356
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tŋ̊ʰaːns/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. charcoal
    2. charcoal fire
    3. coal
    4. coal-like substance
    5. Alternative form of (tàn, “carbon”).
    6. (ACG, Internet, slang) -tan

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (たん) (tan)
    • Korean: (, tan)
    • Vietnamese: thán ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. a coal or cinder from a fire
    2. charcoal

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    すみ
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. First appears in 762 C.E.. Cognate with Japanese (sumi, India ink).[1]

    In turn, from Proto-Japonic *sumi. Cognate with Miyako (sum), Okinawan (shimi), Yaeyama (sïn).

    Possibly derived from the homophonous 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) 済み (sumi) of verb 済む (sumu, to finish, to conclude), from the way that cinders are left after a fire has finished burning.

    Possibly also related to (susu, soot).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (すみ) (sumi

    1. a coal or cinder from a fire
      Synonym: 消し炭 (keshizumi) (literally “extinguished coal/cinder”)
    2. charcoal
      Synonyms: 木炭 (mokutan) (literally “wood charcoal”), 木炭 (kizumi) (rare reading), (tan) (very rare as standalone noun; see below)
    3. (rare) coal (fossil fuel)
      Synonyms: 石炭 (sekitan) (literally “stone charcoal”), 石炭 (ishizumi) (rare reading), (tan) (very rare as standalone noun; see below)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たん
    Grade: 3

    From Middle Chinese (MC tʰɑnH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (たん) (tan

    1. (rare) charcoal
      Synonyms: (sumi) (more common; see above), 木炭 (mokutan) (literally “wood charcoal”), 木炭 (kizumi) (rare reading)
    2. (rare) coal (fossil fuel)
      Synonyms: 石炭 (sekitan) (literally “stone charcoal”), 石炭 (ishizumi) (rare reading)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This reading is only very rarely used as a standalone noun. Much more commonly encountered in compounds.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (たん) (Tan

    1. a surname​.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further reading[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (sut tan))

    1. Hanja form? of (charcoal).
    2. Hanja form? of (coal).
    3. Hanja form? of (carbon).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thán, than, tro)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.